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VOLAPUK or Universal Language: a Short 
Grammatical Course. By ALFRED KIRCHHOFF, Professor at the 
University of Halle. Authorized Translation. Third Edition, 
Improved, Amended, and Enlarged. With a New Volapuk- 
English and English-Volapiik Vocabulary. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

KEY to the same. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 



Based on the work of PROF. PFLAUMEE, of Halle. 

[In the Press. 










Professor of Geography at the University of Halle. 





of translation reserved."] 


Crown 8vo. Price 2s. 6d. 



OF the existence of this new language, Volapiik, some 
reports have from time to time crossed our Channel, and 
newspaper paragraphs have treated it with good-natured 
banter, which, however, did not benefit the movement. 

It must be confessed that, in one respect, Volapiik is no 
exception to all the other languages ; it sounds comic and 
outlandish to him that is ignorant of it. Anent this, it is 
worth while to quote an old Shakespearian joke : 

KATH : " Comment appelez~vous le pied et la robe ?" 

KATH : " ' . . . . Seigneur Dicii I ce 

sont des mots de son maiivais, corruptible, cjros et impttdique, 
et non pour les dames d'Tionneur d'user ; je ne foudrais pro- 
iwncer ccs mots devant les seigneurs de France pour tout le 

Such is the opinion entertained by fair Katharine of 
English, the most beautiful and most vigorous of all 
languages. But she did not knoAv that she was preju- 
diced, and that banter and ridicule are not argument. 

The questions we have to deal with are : 

1. Is a Universal Language desirable and attainable? 

2. If so, does "Volapiik," the invention of Johann 
Martin Schleyer (now of Constance), possess the qualifica- 
tions needful for a Universal Language ? 

The want of a Universal Means of Communication has 
often been felt and expressed by both scholars and mer- 
chants ; the former have long been conscious of the inade- 
quacy of Latin to satisfy modern requirements, and the 
latter have not even this means at their disposal ; and yet 
year by year does this want make itself more strongly 
felt, as" the means of communication by steam and elec- 
tricity multiply and extend. Hence the necessity of 
spending much time and labour in the acquisition of 
languages ; how economical then, in the best sense of the 
word, would it prove, if all this effort could be saved ! 

In fact, language is not the only sphere of human 
activity where Universality has been sought, sometimes 
with and sometimes without success. Among the fail- 


ures may be counted the ambitious search after the Philo- 
sopher's Stone, the Doctor's Panacea or Universal Medi- 
cine, and the Chemist's Universal Solvent ; but there 
are also some successes to be recorded. The Metric 
System is on the high road to become the Universal 
System of Weights and Measures, #nd Decimal Fractions 
owe their great popularity to their being the nearest ap- 
proach to a Universal Denominator to all fractions. Why 
should language be judged a priori to fall inevitably into 
the category of failures ? Englishmen, with their world- 
wide empire and interests, should be the first to heartily 
welcome the attempt to supply a World-Speech. 

N"ow this is just what Volapiik does, and in the easiest 
possible manner into the bargain. The vocabulary consists 
mostly of simplified English and German words (rarely 
of Latin or French terms), and the Grammar is so simple 
that it can be learnt in a few days. This gratifying result 
is due to the language being freed from all exceptions, 
irregularities, idioms, and useless complexities of arbi- 
trary genders, of declensions and conjugations, the bequests 
of centuries and chiliads of use, wear and tear, and indi- 
vidual caprice of fossil remains and linguistic records 
of prehistoric events. It requires already a considerable 
knowledge of the language to be able to look for tetigisti 
under tango, for hieb under hauen, and for je puis under 
poutoir. In fact, in all languages, except Yolapiik, the 
dictionary is of most use to him that could very nearly 
do without it. But when the Volapiikist has once 
mastered his short grammar, he at once steps, with the 
help of the dictionary, into the full use of the language. 
The difficulties of construing, spelling, and pronunciation 
resemble in Volapitk the famous snakes of Iceland ; they 
have no existence. 

In composition, the order of words is nearly identical 
with the translucent arrangement of an English phrase. 

Some suggest, not without good show of reason, that 
English should be adopted as the Universal Language ; 
but, much as might justly be urged in favour of this pro- 
posal, there is this one consideration fatal to its speedy 
adoption : English is difficult to acquire. Experto crede. 
It presents itself to the foreigner as a long series of 
idioms and synonyms, as singular and insular in their 
character as Englishmen themselves are. On the very 
threshold of the language he encounters the perplexities 

of its peculiar spelling. No doubt all this is surmount- 
able, and if, or when, by the process of Natural Selection 
English shall in due time have superseded all other 
languages, then Volapiik will disappear as useless ; but it 
will meanwhile have rendered very great service. 

As for the work here submitted to the English reader, 
it is a translation of the excellent grammar of Professor 
Alfred Kirchhoff, of Halle, which has passed through 
three large editions in less than six months, and I can 
do no better than translate a few passages from the three 
German prefaces. 


" Volapiik is beyond doubt destined to become the 
language of communication among all nations. Every 
nation will continue to speak its own language ; but those 
who follow pursuits, be they merchants or scholars, where 
international communication is indispensable, should study 
this world-speech, so as to save themselves the endless 
toil and regrettable loss of time consequent on the study 
of at least twelve European languages." 

" The study of Volapiik is spreading over all the cul- 
tured states of Europe, and into the civilized countries 
beyond the ocean. Thus then Volapiik is not a still-born 



" Any one who has acquired in a few days the elements 
of this World-Speech, so far as to be able to write with 
the help of the Dictionary a letter in Volapiik, can at once 
enter into correspondence with all the civilized nations of 
the globe, without the necessity of studying their several 
languages. Prof. Kerckhoffs, of Paris, in his excellent 
periodical Le Volaptik, revue mensrielle, keeps a register 
with addresses of all Vola^akists in and beyond Europe, 
who are able and willing to conduct correspondence with 
Volapiikists of other nations. . . . On the circulars 
of large commercial firms AVC not uncommonly meet with 
the phrase ' Spodon Volapiiko' 'Correspondence conducted 
in Volapiik,' so that a German merchant, for example, can 
communicate with his Portuguese, Spanish, Russian, or 

Chinese business friends with as much ease as now he can 
correspond with Frenchmen or Englishmen, with whose 
languages he is familiar." 


" Although the second edition was of double the size 
of the first, it yet did not suffice to supply the ever growing 
demand- for this grammar for more than a few months, 
so persistent and expanding is the study of this World- 

" This new edition has supplied the opportunity to 
utilize the highly valuable suggestions made to the Author 
by Prof. Kerckhoff s of Paris. Every expression or phrase 
that had a specifically German flavour about it, and was 
thus wholly unsuited to the classic simplicity of a World- 
Speech, has been eliminated, and moot points were 

" Prof. Kerckhoffs' admirable ' Cours complet de Volapiik ' 
will shortly appear in German garb, as a more advanced 
course to this present Avork." 

P.S. Whilst these pages were going through the press, 
a fourth and a fifth edition already appeared, such are 
the strides that Volapiik is making in Germany. This 
translation has had the benefit of profiting by all the 
successive improvements, and my warmest thanks are due 
to Prof. A. Kirchhoff, of the University of Halle, for the 
cordial sympathy he has evinced for this work, and for 
the persistent and self-denying help he has afforded me. 
A. S. 



HARDLY more than a week has elapsed since the first 
publication of this work, when already a second edition 
is called for, a proof as convincing as it is gratifying 
of the interest the public is taking in this movement. 

The reprint has afforded the opportunity of making 
a few corrections necessitated by the improvements and 
alterations made in the language since the first edition 
went though the press. 

A small chapter has been added on Euphony and 
Word-building A. S. 


THIS new edition lias been amended and enlarged in 
several essential particulars. The translator's cordial 
thanks are due to the eminent and learned Volapiikist, 
Professor A. Kerckhoffs, of Paris, at "whose suggestion 
several defects and deficiencies, hardly avoidable in the 
earlier editions, have been remedied. 

A few words of explanation seem desirable. In the 
growth of this new language two tendencies have mani- 
fested themselves : the one aims at such amplification 
and minute precision as will make Volapuk co-extensivo 
with German ; the other strives for conciseness and classic 
simplicity in the vocabulary and in the grammar and for 
emancipation from the German type. In fact, Volapuk, 
an artificial language though it be, is still subject to laws 
of its own, and the endeavour to form it after a certain 
extraneous model must be regarded as an error. This 
present Grammar rejects all redundancy and superfluity, 
and thus sides with the emancipating school. 

On one point it is advisable to forewarn the reader. A 
mere literal word-for-word translation into Volapuk is 
not likely to yield a result that is easily intelligible. A 
good translator must be able to distinguish between the 
literal and the figurative sense of words, as only the 
former expressions admit of a strictly verbal transfer. 
But this distinction is not easy to him Avho has a scanty 
knowledge of his own mother-tongue. Although Volapuk 
can be learnt without an acquaintance with a foreign 
tongue, yet he that knows another language besides his 
own will, even in the use of Volapuk, have the advantage 
over him that lacks the aid afforded by comparing his 
own language with at least one foreign speech. 

A. S. 




Accusative and Dative, position of 
Adjectives, Comparison of . 

In ik or lik . 

Position of . 

Used substantively 
Adverbs, comparison of 
Euphony, Rules of . 

Feminine Prefix . 
Groups of Words . .. 
Infinitival Ending . ' . 
J7, Feminine Prefix 
Negation .... 
Nouns, Compound 

Declension of 

Gender of ... 

Proper, Declension of . 
Names of Days of the Week 

Of the Months 

Seasons .... 

Sciences . . 
Numerals ..... 

Cardinals rendered Ordinals 

Distributive .... 


Ordinals used adverbially . 

Repetitive .... 


Person, second, use of . 

Plural of Nouns, Formation of . 


. 12 

. 15 

. 14 

. 14 

. 14 

. 15 

. 53 

. 14 

. 13 

. 12 

. 14 

. 12 

. 15 

. 9 

. 12 

. 36 

. 34 

. 34 

. 34 

. 35 

16, 19, 21, 23 

. 26 

. 29 

le ; sma 
li; In 

ne . 





Prepositions followed by Nominative 
Pronouns, Indefinite 08 
Demonstrative .... 
Beciprocal and Reflective 
Pronunciation . . . . . 
Question particle li . 
ad; ef . 


. 10 
. 12, 14 
. 14 
. 14 
. 14 
. 32 
. 14 
. 9 
. 17 

. 36 

. 39 

. 35 


of; em ; en ; o ; of; dm ; u ; uy ; Up . 
id ; o ; 6d ; us 
ile; lik 

. 13, 26 
. 40 
. 26 
. 14 

il . 

. 17 

la . . .* 

. .28 

nik; ov 

id . . 

. 29 
. 31 

inn; tin ....'.... 
Tense-prefixes applied to Nouns 
Verbs, Conditional 
Conjugation of 
Passive Voice 
Reciprocal and Reflective .... 
Tenses, Formation of 
"Words, Groups of ...... 


. 20 
. 29 
. 11 
. 26 
. .12 
. 22 
. 32 
. 28 
. 20 
. 56 
13, 52 seq. 



() Tlie vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in 
the following English words : 

a as in father, rather o as in go, no 

e as a in pate, mane u glue, rue 

i as / in give, live 

Modified vowels, ti, o, it, are sounded as in the 
German Vciter, Gotter, and Mutter. 

Two vowels together are pronounced separately, 
and never united into a diphthong ; thus au reads 
a-u, ea reads e-a (like ay-ah), and so on. 

(&) The consonants have the same functions as in 
English, with the exception of 
g, which is always hard. 

c, ,, ,, sounded like the " ch" in our chill. 
Ji 11 11 11 11 n s h T, ?, shot, 
y is also sounded as in English in yet ; and 
z like is. 

(c) The last syllable of the word is always accented. 
Thus we say man, not man, mana (rnanah). 

(rf) Proper names retain their peculiar spelling 
and pronunciation. 

The letter q does not occur in Yolapiik, but it is used in 
proper names to express the guttural sound of the German 
ch in icli, and of the Spanish j in Apuljaras. Thus Hilnchen- 
(Munich) is Miinqen, and Apuljaras is Apulqaras. The accent 
in proper names is indicated by the circumflex (") in long,, 
and by grave ( x ) in short vowels ; thus Peru and Meqiko. 



ARTICLES are not used in Yolapiik. 




N. fat, father fats, fathers 

G. fata, of the father fatas, of the fathers 

D. fate, to the father fates, to the fathers 

A. fati, father fatis, fathers 


One inspection shows that the genitive is formed 
by suffixing a dative, e ; accusative, i ; and that 
the plural takes in all cases an additional s. The 
vocative can be indicated by the interjection o. 


Prepositions are followed by the nominative. " In " 
is translated by t", and " into " by al ; thus : in the 
garden, at school, in gad, injul; into the garden, al gad. 


badik, bad i, also 

binom, (he) is jul, school 

binoms, (they) are jutel, scholar, pupil 

bulc, book Jco, with 

til, child labom, (he) has 

dog, dog laboms, (they) have 

dom, house lob, praise 

domo, at home lobom, (he) praises 

e, and loboms, (they) praise 

fat, father lonom, (he) belongs 

gad, garden man, man 

gadel, gardener mot, mother 

gletik, large, big, great, neif* knife 

goloms, (they) go [long son, son 

good, well M, or 

(a) Translate into English : 

1. Binom badik. 

2. Fat binom gudik. 

3. Fat e mot binoms gudik. 

4. Cil labom buki. , 

5. Neif lonom gadele. 

6. Dog mana binom gletik. 

7. Julel labom bukis e neifis. 

8. Loboms sonis mana. 

9. Dom lonom mote cilas. 

10. Fat binom domo e i mot. 

11. Julels goloms al jul u ko fat al gad. 

12. fat, neifs lonoms sones gadela, 

* Read ne-if, see Ma)" 


(6) Translate into Volaptik . 

1. The praise of the father is great. 

2. The books of the pupils are good. 

3. He praises the house of the gardener. 

4. The knife belongs to the father and to the 
mother ; it also belongs to the sons. 

5. mother, men are bad. 

6. They have knives and also books. 

7. The father of the gardener has the dog of the 

8. The pupils are in the garden, and have the 
dogs of the man. 

9. The sons of the gardener are at home, or in the 
garden of the father. 

10. The children go with the father and the 
mother into the garden. 

11. Father and mother praise the children of the 

12. The pupils have the books in the school. 


Verbs are conjugated by suffixing the personal 
pronoun to the stem of the verb ; thus : Lobom, he 
praises, is literally " praises he," om meaning " he." 

From the stem of the verb " to have," which in 
Volapiik is lab (not habf we form : 
labob, I have (06, I) labobs, we have (obs, we) 

labol, thou hast (o7. thou) labols, ye have (ols, ye) 
labom, he has (om, he) laboms, they have (oms, 

they, masc.) [fern.) 

labof, she has (o/ 1 , she) labofs, they have (ofs, they, 
?#&ott,fonehas (on, French ; 

ow, German man) 
labos, it has (o, it) 

* In Volapiik an initial 7* is frequently changed into I, to 
suit the taste of many nations who have a dislike to an initial h. 
f Contrast : 

ol, I, with obs, we. om, he, with cms, they (masc.). 

ol, thou, with oh, ye. of, she, with ofs, they (fern.). 


In Volapiik every nonn is masculine, except those 
signifying a female, which are of feminine gender, 
and therefore the terminations of and ofs are used 
only with females ; thus : mot labof, the mother has ; 
and mots Idbofs, the mothers have. "With all other 
nouns the verb terminates in om ; thus : jul binom 
gletik, the school is large ; neifs binoms gudik, the- 
kiiives are good. 

The termination os is only used indefinitely ; thus : 
binos gudik, it is good. 

For the second person singular, the Volapiikist,, 
like the Quaker, uses "thou" in all oases. 

The Infinitival ending is on, e.g., labb'n, to have. 

The negative no is placed before the verb ; thus :: 
" he has not " is no labom. 

The Accusative (regime direct] rprecedes the Dative- 
(regime indirect) ; thus: "he gives the child wine," 
is translated into Volaptik by, " he gives v/ine (to) 
the child." 


abj but men, human being (Lat. 

das, that (conjn.) homo) 

denu, again saun (sa-un), health 

dlefon, to hit saunik, healthy, in good 

dtit, industry health, wholesome 

dutik, industrious stag, stag 

juton, to shoot sup, soup 

kiik, kitchen tid, act of teaching, lesson 

JcuJcel, cook tidel, teacher 

Teuton, to cook tidon, to teach 

liev (h'-ev), hare tot, thunder 

lilb'n, to hear ya, already 

lobon, to praise yag, the chase, the hunt 

lofon, to love yagon, to hunt 

logon, to see yagel^ huntsman 

(a) Translate into English : 

1. No lofobs yagi. 

2. Yagel jutom stagis e lievis. 

3. Mot kukof cile denu supi. 


4. Yagels laboms dogis. 

5. Jutob, ab no dlefob. 

6. Logon cloniis e manis. 

7. Lilol toti. 

8. Binos gudik, das cils binoms dutik. 

9. Lilob, das no binol saiinik. 

10. Lobols sauni menas. 

11. Tidel tidom cilis. 

12. Lobon dnti julelas. 

(6) Translate into Volapiik. 

1. The men hunt the stag. 

2. The mother is well again ; she is in the kitchen. 

3. The mothers love the children. 

4. Thou shootest, but thou dost not hit the hare 
(say u thou hittest not "). 

5. It is good that we do not hear the thunder. 

6. Ye hear the lesson. 

7. The son is well again, but he does not go to 
school. (Say, " he goes not to school.") 

8. The cook's soup is bad. 

9. Men love dogs. 

10. They (fern.) are good. 

11. pupils, you are not industrious. 

12. You (2nd pers. pi.) see the house of the father. 


The noun indicating the fundamental notion is 
mostly a monosyllable consisting of two consonants 
and a vowel between them, as tid and yag. The 
infinitive of the corresponding verb is formed by 
adding the termination on; and the agent performing 
the action is indicated by the suffix el * ; thus : 
tid, teaching, les- yag, the chase, kiik, kitchen 

son the hunt huJcon, to cook 

tiddn, to teach yagon, to hunt ki&el, (a) cook 

tidelj the teacher yagel, the huntsman 

* This termination has the same function as the English 
suffix er in " brewer," " teacher/' etc. In Volapiik I is fre- 
quently put in the place of r (thus " beer " is bil), for the sake 
of nations like the Chinese, who either do not possess the r or 
find it difficult to pronounce it accurately. 


The feminine sex is indicated by prefixing ji- * to 
the corresponding masc. noun ; thus : 

( son, son f tidel, teacher, master 

\jison, daughter \jitidel, female teacher, mistress 

Adjectives end in ik or lik, thus : 

gud, good- saun, health yun, youth (abstr. noun, 

ness saunik, healthy Lat. juventa) 

gudik, good yunik, young 

yunlik, youthful 


Adjectives are used substantively by the addition 
of el, e.g. gudikel, the good (man); jigudikel, the 
good woman. 

The adjective follows the substantive (in harmony 
with the common usage of placing the secondary 
after the primary), and is undeclined ; e.g. fat gudik, 
the good father ; julel dutik, the industrious pupil. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS are declined like nouns and 
adjectives, thus : 

06, I obSj we 

oba, of me (mine) obas, of us, ours 

obe, to me dbes, to us 

obi, me obis, us 

The indeterminate neuter termination is os. 
at, this (person) atos, this (thing) 

et, that (person) etos, that (thing) 

Jcel, who, which (person), (rel.). kelos, which (thing). 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS are formed from personal 
pronouns by suffixing the adjectival termination ik. 
They are subject to the same rules of syntax as other 
adjectives ; i.e. they follow the noun ; hence : 

* The feminine prefix ji has been finally adopted at the 
Munich Congress of Volapiikists, in August, 1887. 


obsik, our 
olaik, your 
omsik, their 

ofsik, their (plural of ofik) 

(plural of 

oft/A', my 
o//A;, thy 
OJH/A', his or her (before a 

masc. noun) 
ofik, her (before a fern. 


The genitival inflection a is also used in the 
formation of Compound Nouns ; thus : kukaneif, 
kitchen knife ; julabuk, school book. 

The COMPARATIVE is formed by suffixing um, and 
the SUPERLATIVE by suffixing tin. The adverb ter- 
minates in o ; thus : 


POSITIVE . . gudik, good gudiko, good, well 

COMPARATIVE gudikum, better gudikumo, better 

SUPERLATIVE gudikun, best gudikiino, best. 


adelo, to-day 
apod, apple 
bad, ill (noun) 
badUk. bad (adj.) 
belled, age 
bciledik, aged, old 
beatik. blessed, happy, 

bit, beer 
blod, brother 
bum, the act of building 
bumot, a building 
bumon, to build 
btin, pear 
cem, a room 
deb', debt 
del, a day 

rfwo, below, downstairs 
disik, the lower 
fa. from, on the part of 
fidon, to eat. dine 
gicon. to give 

ibo, because 

is, here 

jiblod, sister 

jidog, bitch 

jikat, cat (fern.) 

jinok, aunt 

jonik, beautiful 

A'af, cat generally, also 

klod, belief [tom-cat 

klodon, to believe 

lif, life 

lolik-, whole 

7o/?o, above, upstairs 

lopik, the upper 

?><aA', a mark, the coin = 

one shilling 
maladik, ill 
maladikel, the patient 

jimaladikel, the patient 

(fern.) [WM.S) 

masel, master (Lat. domi- 


mekon, to make fpatiin, to take a walk 

m&dikj much stok, storey or fioor (ot a 

nog, as yet, still house) 

ntik, uncle tim, time 

phi- AY?, more than us. there 

s/', yes r/7/to, willingly, gladly 

sibinon, to exist, to r#Sw, to will (Lat. reZ/e) 

be t-in, wine 

,s/s. since y un t youth 

smalik, small yunik, young 

spat, a walls: yunlik, youthful 


6Z, one /oZ, four 

feZ, two Z?(Z, five. 

7*77, three 

(a) Translate into English : 

1. Yun binom tim jonikiin lifa lolik. 

2. Bled olik lofom bill nog plu ka vini. 

3. Kukel noka obsik kukom bilasupi gudikum ka 
jikukel olsih:. 

4. Jiblods obik vilofs mekon adelo spati gletik ko 
mot olsik e ko ols. 

5. Kelosi logon, atosi klodon ; c klod mekom beatik. 

6. Baled bumota at, keli logols is, binom gletikurn 
ka klodon. 

7. Logob sis dels tel us in gad jikati baledik 
gadela olsik ko kats tel smalik. 

8. Dom, keli bumamasel bumom obes. labom cemis 
mb'dikum ka olik. ibo cems lul gletik sibinoms in sto'k 
lo'pik e in stok disik cems fol smalikum, ab i jonik. 

9. Jison jitidela olsik, kele dom et lonom. givof 
makis kil obe e maki bal jiblode obik. 

10. Fidobs vilikumo apodis, ab viliklino biinis. 

11. Blod omik yunikum labom debis badlik. 

12. Mans at binoms nog yunlik, ab no ets. 

(6) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. Our house is the largest. 

2. I think so, but you also contract the worst 

debts. (Say, " I believe it, but you (pi.) make also- 
the worst debts.") 

3. "We (are going to) take a walk to-day with our 
mistress, whose brother you see yonder. 

4. I give her the beautiful books, which belong to- 
you (thee). 

5. I hear that your (thy) younger sister is ill. 

6. Yes, these (since) five days the sick (girl) does 
not go to school. (Say, " goes not to school.") 

7. My aunt has three little dogs and a bitch ; two- 
of those dogs she will give to our huntsman. 

8. The kitchen is on the top (uppermost) floor of 
yonder house, not in the lower (storey); the father- 
has his room upstairs, and our old uncle below. 

9. His mother will dine to-day in this little garden- 
saloon (garden-room). 

10. Our architect (building-master, lumamasel) 
will not (does not intend, wills not) again build a- 
school in his whole life. 

11. Our cook (fern.) cooks wine-soup best, but she 
does not like to cook it. (Say, " she cooks it not wil- 

12. I have four rooms upstairs and five downstairs.. 

A QUESTION is indicated by prefixing the particle- 
li to the verb. 

In sentences beginning with Interrogative "Words - 
or phrases, as who ? what ? how much ? hoic many ? ' 
the li is omitted. 

If the subject in an interrogative sentence is a. 
noun, it is placed before the verb : e.g., fat li-binom 
gudik ? (is the father good ?) In a truncated inter- - 
rogative phrase, where the verb is not expressed, but . 
only understood, the particle li is added to the most 
important word : thus: li-Tom? (is it Tom?); Tom 
li-obsik ? (our Tom ?) ; li-si u li-no ? (yes or no ?) 

The DIMINUTIVE Suffix is il ; thus : bukil, little- 
book ; gadil. little garden : manil, rnannikin. 

The DIMINUTIVE Particle lu expresses a reduction. 


of degree or of value, whilst the particle le expresses 
;an enhancement of the same ; thus : 

hat, hat dom, house 

luhcit, cap ludom, hut 

lehat, helmet ledom, palace 

jonik, beautiful vomik, womanly 

lejonik, exceedingly beautiful luvomik, womanish, 


fidon, to eat lufidon, to devour 

The Prefix sma (cf. smalik) expresses an object of 
the same category as the stem- word, but of lower 
degree ;. thus : 

( bim, tree ( bed, bed ( zigad, cigar 

( smabim, shrub \ smabed, nest [ smazigad, cigarette 

tba* an expletive, meaning 

" I wonder," as in li- 

labol ba? hast thou, I 

wonder ? German, hast 

Du icohl ? 
>beno, good 
bod, bird 
'but, boot 
danon, to thank (with 

:glug, church 
.hetlik, ugly 
.isik, of this place, belong 

ing to this place 
n, in 

it, himself, herself 
Jeval, horse 
Jevalel, horse-soldier 
jipul, girl 
Urn ? (m), l-if? (fern.), 



\7ciom? (m.), kiof? (f.), Jcios? 
(n.), what?, which? 

Idplad ? where ? 

kostb'n, to cost 

lab, luck, fortune, happi- 
! labik, lucky 

lad, lady 

lebeno, very good, very well 

lemon, to buy 

liko? how? 

limodik ? how much ? 

lodo'n, to dwell, inhabit 

moniton, to ride (on an ani- 

monitel, a rider 

modik, much 

nulik, new 

o! ahi! ah! 

plidon, to please 

* 6a also means peri.aps. 


pilkj speech, language do? French, se porter / 

pukon, to speak German, sich befinden. 

pill, boy stom, wither 

smoikon, to smoke SM, up, upon, on 

so, so vol, world 

so7, master, sir, Mr. volaptik, world-speech, 

staddn, to do (in " how do universal language 
you do?") thus: liko vedon, to become 
stadol ? how do you zif, town, city 

NUMERALS (continued'). 
mtil, six velj seven 


(a) Translate into English : 

1. Deli gudik ! 0, li-nog in bed ? : Liko stadol, sol ? 

2. Danob oli, lebeno ; e li-ol ? 

3. Li-vilol spaton adelo ? 

4. Stom li-binom ba jonik ? 

5. Kiplad buts obik biiioms ? 

6. Li-logols jevali et, keli jevalel monitom ? 
"^"7. Monitels li-plidoms of e plu ka yagels ? 

8. Jiblods olik no li-golofs al gliig ? 

9. Kiplad lemon in zif isik hatis e luhatis gudikiin ? 
- 10. Kisi jevals olsik modik lufidoms ? 

11. Mens limodik piikoms volapiiki ? 

12. Juleli kiom tidel lobom ? 

(6) Translate into Volapiik : 

1 . Does this little-book belong to thee ? Yes, or no ? 

2. Who does not like to go to church ? (Say, 
" Who goes not willingly to church? ") 

3. Does not the teacher praise the industry of the 
boys ? (Say, " Praises not the teacher ? " etc.) 

4. How much does your (thy) new hat cost? 
(Say, " How much costs ? " etc.) 

5. It costs six or seven marks ; and yours (thine), 
madam ? 

6. Have not the horse-soldiers large helmets ? 

7. Anna is a very beautiful girl, and so womanly 
too. Is her sister Maggie also beautiful and womanly? 


8. Maggie ? Oh, no ! she is effeminate and u^ _ 

9. The weather is getting (say, " becomes ") bad. 
Do you hear the thunder ? 

10. We see six birds'-nests on the trees of thy 
uncle's garden, and one on the shrub there. 

11. Does your father smoke (say, "Smokes your 
father ? " etc.) cigars or cigarettes ? 

12. What is happiness ? Is he happier who lives 
in (inhabits) a palace, or he who inhabits a hut ? 


All tenses (except the present) are formed by pre- 
fixes : 

lofob, I love ilofob, I had loved 

alofob, I loved olofob, I shall love 

elofob, I have loved ulofob, I shall have loved 

Nouns also are treated in a similar manner, thus ; 
from del, day, are formed : 
adelo, to-day odelo, to-morrow 

adelo, yesterday [terday udelo, the day after to- 
edelo, the day before yes- morrow. 

Similarly, from yel, year, are formed : 
ayelo, this year oyelo, next year 

ayelo, last year uyelo, the year after next 

eyelo, the year before last 

Similarly from mul, month : amulo, amulo, emulo f 
omulo, and umulo. 


also, well then Deutel, (a) German 

Ag&p&n, Egypt deutik, German (adj.) 

Agiipdnel, Egyptian diinal, a servant, minister 

&z, because diinel, a servant, porter 

bizugik, excellent, most Flent, France 

preferable Flent el, Frenchman 

Uzugon, to prefer flentik, French (adj.) 

llinon, to bring fit, fish 

botel, waiter, butler foviko, forthwith, imme- 
des, from... till diately, anon 

Deut, Germany geton, to receive, get 


Nelijel, Englishman 
nelijik, English (adj.) 
no nog, not yet 
pab, butterfly 
pir, pyramid 
plo, for 

poed, poetry, poesy 
poedel, a poet 
poedal, a great poet 
sagbn, to say 
se, out, out of 
smacem, small room, cabi- 
net, boudoir 
snek, snake 
snekafit, eel 
lupab, caterpillar (tf.pdb} sol, sir, gentleman, Mr. 

it, self; German, selbst ; 

French, meme 
jidunel, maidservant 
Jveizan, Switzerland 
Jveizel, a Swiss 
kaf, coffee 
kiplada ? whence ? 
kipladi ? whither ? 
kbmbn, to come 
lad, lady, mistress 
Ian, land 

lemasel, great master 
liegik, rich 
ludog, wolf 

" t, step-father 

Luscin, Russia 
Lusdnel, (a) Russian 
lusanik, Russian (adj.) 
mel, sea 

menad, humanity, man- 

milagon, to admire 
modo, much * (adv.) 
nebel, valley 
Nelij, England 

sosiis, as soon as 

suno, soon 

tai'b'n, to travel 

te, only, not till 

fr'ed, tea 

valik, all 

ven, when, as (temporal) 

vob, work 

#o m, woman 

vomiil, Miss, young lady 
NUMERALS (continued), 
jb'l, eight zul, nine 

(a) Translate into English : 

1. Gothe binom e obinom lemasel poeda deutik. 

2. Blod plik li-emilagom gliigabumis lejonik in 
Flent, Nelij e Lusan, ven atavom us ? 

3 . Diinan li-igivom adelo bukis vome Robinson ? 

4. No, sol, no nog ugetom it omis. 

5. Li-elogols piris Agiipana ? 

6. Si, vomul, elogobs omis ; esagon, das binoms 
bumots baledikiin menada, modo baledikum ka 
valiks deutik u nelijik. 

* Instead of modiko; the adverbial termination is often 
contracted by elision of the adjectival inflection ik. 


7. Volapiik li-ovedom piik vola lolik ? 

8. Kiplada akomols ? Kipladi golols ? 

9. Se lupab, keli alogols adelo in gad obsik, pab 
ovedom suno, ba ya odelo. 

10. Jibotel oblinof kafi ole foviko, sosun kukel 
ukukom omi. 

11. Diinel John ogetom makis j6l n ziil fa Nelijel 
liegik plo vob omik. 

12. Sneks gletik no li-olufidoms fitis obsik ? 

(&) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. Egypt, says Herodotus, is the land of the 
Egyptians, thus only the valley of the Nile from 
Syene to the sea. 

2. The maid has bought to-day eels for 8 marks ; 
mother herself has told it me. 

3. The Russians and the English will prefer tea, 
the French coffee, the Germans beer. 

4. Where did the great poet live (say, " has the 
great poet lived ") whom humanity admires? 

5. The Russian had given me excellent cigarettes. 

6. My step-father's house (say, " the house of my 
step-father") had in two storeys nine rooms, eight 
small rooms, and a kitchen. 

7. As soon as you come (will have come) I will 
give you the three books of my uncle. 

8. The waiter brought my brother wine ; but he 
thanked (him) and went (awaj 7 ). 

9. The French too have had great poets. 

10. The Egyptian Cheops has built the greatest 

11. He did not come (say, "he came not") because 
he had not time. 

12. The Swiss (pi.) whom we saw to-day spoke two 
languages French and German, but not Russian. 


The Passive Voice is formed from the active voice 
by prefixing the letter p (in the present and in the 
infinitive, pa) : 


palofon, to be loved palofob, I am loved 

palcifob, I was loved pelofob, I have been lovecfe 

pilofob, I had been loved polofob, I shall be loved 
pulofob, I shall have been loved. 


Units : bal, one fol, four vel, seven 

tel, two lul, five Jo/, eight 

kil, three ?na'Z, six zwZ, nine 

The tens are formed from the units by the addi- 
tion of 8 ; thus : 

bal, one unit beds, one ten = 10 

tel, two units tels, two tens = 20 

kit, three units Icils, three tens = 30 

ziilj nine units 27s, nine tens = 90 

The tens precede the units. Thus we say, in Vola- 
plik, " twenty-one," and never " one-and-tweiity." 
l)dlsebal (beds e &Z), ten and one = eleven 
balsetel, twelve 
balseldl, thirteen ; and so on 
Similarly : 

telsebal, twenty-one ~kilsetel, thirty-two 

folsekil, forty-three ; and so on 
zulseziil. ninety-nine mil, a thousand 

turn, a hundred ballon, a million 


The prefix ne always indicates the opposite notion-, 
of the word itself ; thus : 

bel, mountain nebel, valley 

flen, friend neflen, foe 

Itibo, luckily nelcibo, unluckily 

labon, to have neldbon, to lack 

modilcs, many nemodiks, few 

If the word to be negatived begins with an e, the 
terminal e of the negative particle is elided ; thus : 
ek, somebody nek, nobody 

egelo, ever, always negelo, never 


al, to 

ciso, as well as 

bif, before (locally) 

-btlf, before (temporally) 

bod, bread 

de, of, from 

desedon, to send away 
(prefix (?e = away) 

delo, by day 

?;Wo, indeed, certainly 

dim, a beverage 

dlinon, to drink 

<??<>, hour 

ek, somebody 

fa, of, from, by means of 

fagik, distant, far 

ffikulik, difficult 

fot, forest, wood 

fb'sefb'n, to assure, asseve- 

funb'n, to kill 

gedlanon, to push back 
(prefix ge = back) 

Glik, Greece 

GUM, (a) Greek 

tjo'del, morning 

juk, shoe 

Tea, than 

.JeanSn, inf. of " I can " 
(Lat., posse) 

Jed, where (relative) 

Jkodo, on which account 

leyan, gate (cf. yan) 

Jovik, soft, softly 

mat, matrimony, married 

matel, husband 

mileg, butter 

milig, milk 

mit, meat, flesh 

miiton, inf. of "I must" 

neb, near by, by the side 

nefikulik, easy (cf. fikuliK) 

neit, night 

neito, at night 

nek, nobody 

nen, without (Lat. sine) 

nendas, without that 

mi, now 

of, the same 

pened, a letter (Lat. ejois- 
tola, not litera) 

penon, to write 

pom, fruit (Lat. pomum, 
not fmx) 

pofik, poor 

Romel, (a) Eoman 

e, out, out of 

sefon, to secure, make safe 

skit, leather 

tal, earth 

^ow, (a) tone, sound 

tonod (a) loud sound 

tobo, hardly, with diffi- 
culty (Lat. via;) 

tu, to, too 

talik, all 

vemo, very 

vendel, evening 

mkod, victory 

vikodon, to conquer 

yan, door 

yel, year 


zendel, midday 

zib, fcod, viand 


(a) Translate into English : 

1 . Juk at pemekom de skit bizugikiin. 

2. Kaf ko milig padlinom godelo, mit pafidom 
zendelo, milegabod ko pom vendelo. 

3. In diip bal peneds bals kanoms papenb'n fa nek. 

4. Ton et binom tu lovik, kodo kanom palilon tobo 
bif cemayan. 

5. Neito tonod egelo palilom labo modo fagikumo 
ka delo. 

6. Dlin panelabom fa men fikulikumo, (fikulumo), 
zib ka. 

7. Nelabo jimatel yagela 'pedlefof, nendas yuf 
akanom pablinon ofe. 

8. Dom flena obik su bel bif leyan pesefom biif 
yels balseziil plo maks folsmi]. 

9. Roma no pebumom in del bal. 

10. Evikodobs dido, ab lultum obsikas pefunoms 
in pug bal. 

11. Odelo zendelo neflens puvikodoms, e telmil fol- 
tum jols omas pagedlanoms al zif. 

12. Stags balsekil piijutoms adelo in fot obsik, e 
odelo nog modikums ka tels pojutoms. 

(&) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. Shoes and boots are made of (de) leather. 

2. The earth is inhabited by more than 1,400 mil- 
lion men. 

3. In two hours the enemies were conquered, and 
775 of their men (men of them) were killed in the 
battle before the wood. 

4. Will not the sound be heard on the mountain 
as well as in the valley ? 

5. Fifteen men with six hounds (hunting-dogs) 
have been seen at night in the orchard (fruit-garden) 
near the house of your (thy) friend. 

6. Where they smoke (say, " one smokes ") they 
also drink (say, " one also drinks "). 

7. The letter will be sent off to-morrow forthwith, 
as soon as it is written (as it shall have been written). 

8. The Greeks were conquered by (fa) the Romans 


but the .Romans, even 2,000 years ago (say, " already 
before 2,000 years ") by the G-ermans. 

9. The poor man lacks everything ; he has hardly 
bread to eat ; wherefore help must be rendered 
(brought) to him. 

10. Only few houses could be built during (in) this 
year in our great town, which is now inhabited by 
82,354 men. 

11. By .Russians, tea will always be preferred for 
supper, but not by Frenchmen. 

12. Even to-day the Universal Language (Volapuk) 
is spoken by more than 40,000 people (men). 


The IMPERATIVE is formed by adding the termina- 
tion, od ; thus : 

givolod, give (2nd person singular) 
givolsod, (2nd person plural) 
givobsodj let us give. 

A milder form of the imperative is given by the 
termination 6s; thus: 

givolos, please to give 
golobsos, let us go 


Every cardinal number can be turned into a noun 
by adding el, and can be turned into a verb by add- 
ing on ; thus : 


tel, two telel, a pair felon, to double 

M, three MeZ, a triplet fo'ftto, to treble 
Z7, five hiJeJj a fiver lulon, to quintuple 
A Cardinal is turned into an ORDINAL number by 
adding the suffix id ; thus : 

balid, the first telid, the second fo7M, the third 
and so on. 

These are rendered adverbial by adding the suffix 
o ; thus: 

balido, firstly telido, secondly Jtilido, thirdly. 


REPETITIVE Numerals are formed from cardinals 
or ordinals by adding the suffix na ; thus : 
balsna, ten times 
telsidna, the twentieth time 
telsidno, for the twentieth time 


alik, every liladon, to read 
as sam (a.s.} (e.g.), for ex- madik, ripe 

ample nemodo, a little (of. modo, 
bUbon, to remain voc. v.) 

dil, a part paun, Ib. (also ) 

fatcin, fatherland saton, to suffice, to be 
foldil, quarter, 4th part enough 

fogiviJn, to forgive solat, soldier 

//", if, when timil, moment 

7aVnM?thehow-manieth? timilo, momentarily, for 
Jcomip, a combat, battle a moment 

Jcomipelj a combatant tupon, to disturb 

7;omip8n, to fight velat, truth 

//", half, noun (Fr. moitie) visit, a visit 

lanimalikj bravely visiton, to visit 

lenlilon, to listen to yelatum, century 


(a) Translate into English : 
1. Binosod ! Men alik sagomod velati. 
Sagolsb'd valikosLobe, kelosi elilols. 

3. Solats valik komipomsSd lanimahko plo fatan. 

4. Komolos nog adelo al obs ! 

5. Adelo no labob timi, bines ya diip velid e fol- 
dils kil. 

6. Fosefob ole, das epenob penedi at ya ziilna. 

7. Fogivolsos, if tupob olis ! 

8. Deli kimid alabobs adelo? 

9. Alabobs kjlsebahdi. "" 

10. In tim ot solats ijutoms jolsevelidno. 

11. Liladon balsna no nog satom. 

12. No fidolOd porni, ibo balido no nog binom 
madik e tehdo no binol saunik. 


(6) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. Let us go to-day into our beautiful forest. 

2. Many towns have already been built for the 
second time, e.g. Rome. 

3. I have told him a hundred times, that nobody 
will thank him for this. 

4. One must fight bravely for the fatherland. 

5. The Germans have conquered three times in 
the second half of this century : in the year eighteen 
hundred and sixty-four, in the year eighteen hundred 
and sixty-six, and in the years eighteen hundred 
and seventy and seventy-one. 

6. I will not buy the house in the town, because, 
firstly, it costs four thousand five hundred pounds ; 
and, secondly, I shall not remain here in England. 

7. Read very industriously the book which you 
have received from (your) aunt. 

8. What o'clock is it? (Say, " The how-manieth 
hour is it ? ") 

9. It is already a quarter past eleven. (Say, " It 
is already hour eleven and one quarter.") 

10. Please stop (remain) yet a moment, and promise 
us that you will dine with us to-morrow. 

11. Kindly pardon me ! I cannot to-morrow. We 
have a great hunt to-morrow. 

12. There will be 9 or 10 English gentlemen with 
servants and dogs at the hunt. 


The SUBJUNCTIVE is formed by adding the suffix 
-la * to the corresponding tense of the indicative ; 
thus : 


binom, he is binomla, he be, he maybe 

cibinom, he was cibinomla, he might be 

ebinom, he has been ebinomla, he may have 


* The suffixes -la and ~ov, being terminal syllables, are 
accented, see rule c, page 9. Accordingly we say liriomld, 

ibinom, he had been ibinomla, he might have been 
In the obliqua oratio (reported speech) the indi- 
cative is used with das, that ; e.g., Asagom, das 
okomom, He said, that he would (will) come. 


The CONDITIONAL is formed by adding the syllable 
-6v * to the imperfect or pluperfect : 
abinomov, he would be 
ibinomov, he would have been 
MULTIPLICATIVE numerals are formed by adding the 
suffix ik, and those expressing classes or categories 
by the suffix nik ; thus : 

bal, one turn, hundred 

balnik, of one kind, tumnik, a hundred sorts of 


DISTRIBUTIVE numerals are expressed by placing 
the particle a before the word ; thus : 

a jol, eight and eight, in sets of eight 
a jplna, eight at a time, every eight times 
a j olid, every eighth person 
Similarly : 

a tel, two at a time a telna, every other time 
a telid, every other person. 


al, to (with infinitive, ex- galod, pleasure 
pressing a purpose) godel, morning 
civendelo, last evening if, if 
can, merchandise, wares, Mn, cannon 

goods Tdig, war 

cil, child "kon, narrative, story 

do, of, concerning Tconon, to narrate 

dunon, to do Tcoselcon, to sacrifice, devote 

e e, as well as labem, property, wealth 

egclo, always lif, life 

fatel, grandfather lodam, load, cargo 

fled, conflagration lodon, to load 

* See Note, p. 28. 


loned, length stim, honour, esteem 

lonedon, to lengthen, pro- stimon, to honour, to 

tract [cate esteem 

malon, to announce, indi- siiam, price 
me, with, by means of tav, journey 
wzon, money teat, theatre 

naf, ship tedel, merchant 

ndkomon, to arrive tolad, toll, custom, duty 

nedon, to need, want toladon, to pay toll or 

Nidan, India duty 

pelon, to pay toned, ton, 1000 kilogs. 

pof, haven, harbour wf, he (dem. pron.) 

pon, penalty, punishment vadelo, daily 
rivon, to reach, attain vipon, to wish 
savon, to save, rescue, dc- vob, work 

liver vobel, worker, workman 

spell /, sparing, economical ro&ow, to work 
*8p&l8n 1 to save, put by, z7, goal 

economise sittfc, zealous 

(a) Translate into English: 

1. Atavobov al Jveiz, if alabobla moni. 

2. Jiblod obik igolofov al teat avendelo, if no 
elabofla dunon tu modikosi. 

3. A lulid solatas pefunom, ibo teltum pefunoms 
de mil. 

4. Sagon, das nedon kilnikosi al klig : moni, moni. 
e denu moni. 

5. Akonobov tumnikosi do tavs obik, if alabobla 

6. Tedel nelijik ipelomov suami kilik plo can, if 
te ikanomla geton omi. 

7. Pauns fol imutomsov papelon de toned as pon, 
if lodam nafa no pitoladomla. 

8. Pajutos kilna in zif obsik ko kan al malon filedi. 

9. Julels amiitomsov telon duti omsik, if aviloms- 
la rivon zeili. 

* Cf. spalon and savon. 


10. Binolod spalik, e otelol labemi olik in yels 

11. If fat e fatel obsik no ispalomsla so ziliko, no 
abinobsov mens so liegik. 

12. Yipob, das naf obsik ko lodam gletik de Nidan 
ya enakomomla in pof. 

(&) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. I would lengthen my letter ; but the longest 
letters are not always the best. 

2. She would daily go to the theatre with her 
friend (fern.) if she had money as well as time. 

3. His uncle would travel to London, if he had 
not threefold work to do. 

4. My friend told me that not one apple in six 
(not every sixth apple) of the largest apple-tree in 
his orchard was ripe yet. 

5. "With the greatest pleasure I would call upon 
(visit) your aunt, if she were at home. 

6. It would be an honour to the brave combatants 
to be killed for the fatherland. 

7. Would the ship have so soon reached (arrived 
in) port, if she had had a double cargo ? 

8. The enemy daily shot twice with cannon, in 
the morning and in the evening, but hardly one 
man in nine (the ninth man) of our soldiers was hit. 

9. How many pounds would you need for the 
journey ? 

10. The ship had a very mixed cargo on board (say 
" had loaded a thousand different kinds of things "), 
and the duty on most of the goods had been doubled 
in that year. 

11. They could be saved fourteen at a time. 

12. Honour those who readily (forthwith) would 
sacrifice their lives for their brothers. 


Every PARTICIPLE terminates in ol : 
givoJj giving pastimol, being honoured 

egivol, having given pestimol, having been 

stimolj honouring honoured 


REFLECTIVE VERBS are formed with the reflective 
pronouns obi, oli, oki, obis, oils, okis (accusative), obe, 
ole, oke, obes, oles, oltes (dative) ; thus : 

lofob obi, I love myself 

lofol oli, thou lovest thyself 

lofom old, he loves himself 

lofofoki, she loves herself 

lofos oki, it loves itself 

lofobs obis, we love ourselves 

lofols olis, you love yourselves 

ok, French se and German sich 
It is needful carefully to distinguish between re- 
flective and reciprocal action of a verb ; thus : 
They love themselves, lofoms oJcis ; but 
They love each other, lofoms balvoto* 
Similarly with possessive pronouns of the third 
person, distinction must be made between " his " 
and "her," referring to the subject or to another 
person, like suus and eius, in Latin. Only in the first 
can oTcik be employed ; thus : 

labom buki okik, he has his (own) book 
labom buki omik, he has his (another's) book 

adelo, to-day fil, fire 

as, as filedb'n, to burn 

banon, to bathe fizir, officer 

blim, equipment, dowry flapon, to beat 
cm, machine flum, river 

dalebon, to lack, need, suf- galon, to rejoice 

fer from want, starve jol, coast 
deilon, to die, decease Jcapalon, to understand 
delidik, dear, expensive Tcosel, cousin (m.) 
difik, different Idk, lake 

dledon, to fear, dread len, at, to, by now) 

dub, through, by means of lenu, forthwith (from nu, 

* Balvoto, contracted form of lalvotiko (from 6aZ, one, and 
votik, other). 


mel, sea pometb'n, to promise 

matapometon, to betroth, sevokon, to exclaim 

(cf. pdmeton] sol, sun 

mig'on, to mix spidon, to hasten 

miifon, to move stew*, steam 

wflwi, hand stew, astonishment 

7^7, proximity, nearness sumon, to take 

7?/7/A', near (adv.) sugiv, task, exercise 

7, neighbour feJoii, to turn 

-j to approach (with s, yonder, there 

Accve.) rf, water 

7?<7w, near, nigh veJatik, true 
ninflumon, to now into, to rew*o, very much, greatly 

terminate (said of a vuiwn, to wound 

river) OYZ&, axle, axis 

numon, to count 2#, round, about 

. () Translate into English : 

1. Tal tulom in diips telsefol z\\ xab okik e in 
dels kiltum malselul e Ibldil bal zii sol. 

2. Gins et pamufoms dub stem. 

3. Cinavobel obsik eflapom su nam ; elogob it 
nami pevunol omik. 

4. Spidol se dorn filedol asevokom: Savamodoki 
kel kanom. 

5. Gil efiledol oki dledom fill. 

6. Agaloni oki vemo, ven asagob ome, das okomol 
nog adelo. 

7. No kapalobs balvoto. 

8. No vunolsod oils dub neifs gletik. 

9. Sis dels jol banobs (obis) in fluni u in lak ko 
sons flena obsik edeilol. 

10. Len jol mela vat flumas migom oki ko vat mela. 

11. Nilel obsik bumom domi jonik oke. 

12. Kosel obik emataponietom oki ko vomiil Anna 
jikosel olik. 

(&) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. Like (as) the earth, so also the sun turns on his 


2. Cooked meat is wholesomcr iliaii raw (not 

3. The defeated enemies approached our town. 

4. "We prefer wine mixed with water to unmixed 

5. My sister went up (say "approached") the 
dying (woman) and gave her her (say t; the ") hand. 

6. Here the nearest neighbours do not understand 
each other, because they speak different languages. 

7. To conquer oneself is the most beautiful victory. 

8. Starving men do not work well. 

9. The astonishment of the people (of the men) 
was great, when they saw the rescued man near the 

10. Not all river water readily (say " forthwith ") 
mixes with sea water. 

11. Is it true that thy friend (fern.) is betrothed to 
the young officer ? 

12. Yes, she will soon purchase her trousseau 


The NAMES of the SEASONS are compounds of tim, 

ftolatim, spring (flol, flower) 
hitatim, summer (hit, heat) 
flukatim, autumn (fluk, fruit) 
nifatim, winter (//", snow) 

The NAMES of the MONTHS end in Z, (mid, month, 
allied to mun, moon), and are expressed in sequence 
by the ordinal numbers. 

balul, January veluJ, July 

telul, February johil, August 

Jiihtl, March ziihil, September 

/o77, April balsul, October 

lulul. May balsebahiL November 

mdhdj June balsetehil, December 

The DAYS of the WEEK naturally end in del, day, 
^nd their names also are formed with ordinal num- 
bers, inserting the vowel U. 


baliidel, Sunday folildel, "Wednesday 

telildel, Monday hiludel, Thursday 

"kiliidel, Tuesday mfiludel, Friday 

velildel, Saturday 

ADVEEBS of TIME are formed from the days of the 
week in the usual manner by adding the suffix o; 

Mliidelo, o' Sundays, etc. 
cf. adelo, vendelo, etc. 

The NAMES of the SCIENCES end in av : 
gltav, jurisprudence (git, right, just) 
gletav, mathematics (glet, magnitude) 
godav, theology (God, God) 
medinav, medical science (medin, medicine) 
minav, mineralogy (min, mineral) 
natav, natural science (not, nature) 
nimai", zoology (mm, animal) 
planav, botany (plan, plant) 
piikai-. philology (ptik, speech) 
sapac, philosophy (sap, wisdom) 
tola?, geology (tal, earth) 
tikav, logic (tik, thought ; tikon, to think) 
Some sciences, however, retain their common 
names almost unchanged ; thus : filsiid, physics ; 
Idem, chemistry ; filosop, philosophy. 

The termination til indicates something mental or 
spiritual : 

til-til, spirit 'kapal, intelligence (kap, head) 

The terminations ed and am, like our " -ing," sig- 
nify a state or an activity ; thus : 
From fin, end, is formed finam, termination 

,, ylet, magnitude, is formed gletam, increase, 

enlargement, expansion 

,, nindllon, to classify, is formed nindilam, classi- 

,, tik, thought, is formed tikam, consideration 
,, lab, have, is formed labed, possession 
,, taJi, rest, is formed talced, repose 
tal, earth, is formed taled, geography 



The terminations -ef and -ad signify a collection 
of persons, a corporate body ; thus : 

From Krit. Christ, is formed Kritef* Christendom 
men, man (Lat. homo), is formed menad, hu- 
manity, the human family 

The English for- in " forgive," per- in " persecute," 
par- in " pardon," pur- in " pursue," are rendered in 
Volapiik by fe- (occasionally by fo-}, and the English 
a- in " awake," " await," and e- in " espy " are ren- 
dered in Volapiik by da- ; thus : 

From liton, to give light, is formed daliton, to light 

up, illumine 
logon, to see, is formed dalogon, to catch 

sight of, espy 
tucon, to find, is formed datucon, to invent, 

vestigon, to search, investigate, is formed 

davestigon, to find out by searching 
Thus, in "Search the scriptures," we should use 

From yebon, to use, is formed fegebon, to use up, 

gicon, to give, is formed fogicon, to forgive, 

golon, to go, is formed fegolon, to pass away, 

elapse, perish 

PpxOPER NOUNS are not declined. The genitive is 
expressed by the preposition de, the dative by the 
preposition al, and the accusative is distinguished 
from the nominative by its position in the sentence. 


jas, as begin, beginning, com- 

iiyelo, last year mencenient 

baliido. first, at first beginon, to begin 

* N.B. Kritav is Christianity, the system of Christ ; but 
kritefis Christendom. 

t Cf. J.3 (voc. ix.) with as. As expresses similarity; a-?, 
identity; thus: piikom iis iidel, he sjwaks as (though he were 
a teacher; piikom as tidel, he speaks as (being) a teacher. 


belem, mountain range num, number 

bepenon, to describe numon, to comic 

dabalik, singly ofen, often 

dalon, to allow, permit oi'i, over 

danon, to thank, be in- panemon, to bo called, 

debted for named 

deil, death peseco, admittedly 
deilon, to die to know; Fr. to 

dil, (a) part G. kennen) 

do, although plofed, professor 
fedugon, to mislead, seduce_p7o7i - 0, to pluck 

gab, earl, count pof, poverty 

yeil'ik, high pofik, poor 

gladajukj skate (glad, pur, powder 

ice ; jiik, shoe) segun, according 

gladajukon, to skate senon, to feel 

</w, gun sZ/jj, sleep 
giinapur, gunpowder (see smilon, to laugh 

pur] stab, foundation, bottom 

jii, till stabiJw, fundamentally 
failed, calendar, almanac thoroughly 

Jcalon, to calculate, reckon studel, a student 

'kapaliib, intelligence studon, to study 

kod, cause stunon. to be astounded, 
fa-it He, Christian wonder, admire 

lafayel, half-year suilm, sum, price 

legivot, (a) present siidmon, to amount 

lieg, riches, wealth suemon, to comprehend 

liegil;, rich, wealthy siikon, to seek 

likof, constitution, nature taked, repose (noun) 

of thing takedon, to repose 

lugicon, to lend te, only, not till 

modo, much (adverbially) tif, theft 

nemon, to name vcdemo, generally 

nevelo, never valiko, in general 

ntfon, to snow ced. origin 

nicer, university vclitik, weighty, import- 
nol, knowledge, science ant 

nolik, scientific vig, week 

nonik, no, none (adjve.) votik, other 
Xugdn, Hungary 



(a) Translate into English : 

1. Vig nonig fegolom nen vob : e teliidelo e lulii- 
delo labobs dunon in gad, kiliidelo, foltidelo, malii- 
delo e veliidelo vobobs domo ; te baliidelo takedb'n 
padalos obes. 

2. Yel panindilom in yelatims fol e yelatim alik 
in muls kil. 

3. Nifatim beginom ko begin balsetelula, flolatim 
ko kilnl, hitatim ko malul, flukatim ko ziilul. 

4. Nindilam kaleda binom votik, ibo segun kaled 
kalobs a. s. hitatimi sis malul telsebalid jii ziilul 
telsekilid, do nit ofen vedom gletik ya in malulavig 
balid e stom vedom flukatimik ya sis begin ziilula. 

5. Charles elugivom buki de Francis, keli at igetom 
as legivot fa tidel okik ayelo al "William. 

6. Taled bepenoni tali ; taled nolik davestigom 
kodis likofa tala valemo e lanas dabalik, talav bi- 
nom stab taleda. ibo davestigom vedi tala e lanas. 

7. Sol dalitom tali e muni. 

8. Nok omik binom plofed medinava. 

9. Niver obsik labom godavelis modo modikum ka 
gitavelis in lafayel at. 

10. Easi natavels studoms ? 

11. Studoms fiisiidi e kiemi, minavi, planavi e 
nimavi ; studoms i gleta\d, ibo nen kapaliib kela 
natav no kanom pasuemon stabiko. 

12. Tikal niena nedom e dagetom takedi dub slip 

(6) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. Christianity does not yet comprise one quarter 
of the human family. 

2. "When Alfred beheld Edward, he said laugh- 
ingly, " Your friend is a good fellow (w?c), but he 
will not set the Thames on fire." (Say, " He has not 
invented gunpowder.") 

3. Pardon me, sir, that I did not come yesterday ; 
I had wholly forgotten the hour on Thursday. 

4. Logic is a part of philosophy. 

5. Does your brother study philology or mathe- 
matics ? 


6. Our university has never had so many students 
of theology as in this half-year. 

7. Only in our time has it been possible to study 
thoroughly the nature of the sun. 

8. Since April of this year I have used up all my 

9. It snows in winter, and people skate ; in spring 
one plucks flowers. 

10. Those rich earls have large possessions in 

11. This poor workman has been driven to (se- 
duced into) theft by poverty. 

12. The steam-engine (steam-machine) is indeed 
the most important invention of our century ; we 
owe (danon) it to an Englishman. 


From top (place) are derived the terminations op 
for the five quarters of the globe, and op for other 
ocalities : 

Yulop, Europe bilo'p, alehouse (fo7, beer) 

Silop, Asia raladop, waiting room 

Fikop, Africa (caladon, to wait) 

Melop, America Idbp? where? 

Talop, Australia ziimop, environs (ziim, 
lotop, inn, hotel circle) 

(lot, guest) 

From Ian (land) is derived the termination an, 
added to the names of most countries : 

Cintin, China Saxcin, Saxony 

Tdl or Tallin, Italy Jlesttn, Silesia 

Spfln, Spain Tiircin, Thuringia 

Beljiin. Belgium Nelijiln, England 

Bayiin. Bavaria 

The cardinal points terminate in lid : 
noliid. north lefiid, east 

suUid. south resttd. west 


The names of animals mostly (but not always) ter- 
minate in af; e.g. foxaf, fox ; bnt lep, ap?, monkey. 
The termination Up, derived from dilp, hour, ex- 
presses time : 

Ufilp, a lifetime (lif, life) 

tidiip, course of study ; but. tidadiij, lesson, 

hour's teaching (tidon, to teach/ 
fciuj) ? when ? at what time ? 
The termination em expresses a collection of 
things, and dm a collection of tools, utensils. 
belem, a mountain range gadom, garden tools 

(bel, mountain) feSSm t agricultural implo- 

domonij house-gear ments (feil, acre) 

The termination en indicates a trade, workshop, 
or manufacture, as our ery in brewer*/. 
taben, carpentery, from tab, table 
baleen, bakery ,, bakon, to bake 

The terminations ug and of are our -ness in " dark- 
ness " : 

binug, essence (bin, being. Lat. esse) 
dulof, durability (dill, duration) 
flenof, friendliness 
stanof, constancy (stan, stand) 
The termination o is used in exclamations, as in 

bafo ! bravo ! spido ! be quick ! (spiel, speed) 
The termination ii is used with some prepositions, 
as in 

mlii, near by demit, on account of 

The prefix ge-, like our re-, expresses " back " : 
gcvegon, to travel back 
gesagon, to reply 
gegicon, to give back, return 

The prefix di-, like the Latin dis- or di-, expresses 
*' asunder/' " in pieces." 

diblel-on, to shiver (blek, fracture) 
dfatulcSn, to pull down, destroy (still', edifice, 


abn, per contra, on the 7of, guest 

other hand (L. auteni) lotng, inn, hostelry, hotel 
7, towards 
anik. any, a few 
bel, mountain 
biifo, before (temporal) 
caf, kettle 
cfatiicon, to discover 
dis. under 
dol, pain 

dti, whilst (temporal) 
dunik, active 

:, beyond the sea, 

domom taimik, earthenware 
mated, wedding, marriage 
meditSn, to meditate, con- 
sider, think 
met, metre (39'37 in.) 
Nelij, England 

ni ni neither.... 

nim, animal 


filabel, volcano (fire moiin- ninlodel, inhabitant 


ore, over 
continent (large pag, village 

mass of land) 
foginel, foreigner 
fut, foot 
futel, pedestrian 
futelon, to walk, go on 


geilik, high. 
ylilt, glass 

'{jlatikj made of glass 
glebelem, chief mountain sotimo, at times 

range stunik, astonishing 

gletam, growth, expansion sufon, to suffer 
ylezifj chief town, capital silt, street 
kam (a) plain taim, clay 

kinan, kingdom, empire tehlik, many a one 

pakon, to spread 
pld, except 
plo, outside 
pl&s, therefor, for it 
piikat, speech 
sab, sack, bag, purse 
seiston, to lie, be situated 
setenon, to extend, to 
stretch (of mountains) 

lapin, prey, booty 
lebdlik; unique 

tiidunon } to exaggerate 
cayeliko, yearly 

hi, iron vid, width 

lelod, railway vobon, to acquire 


(a) Translate into English : 

1 . In Talop ni leps ni foxafs sibinoms, valemo lapi- 
nanims nonik, ab in taladils votik i no sibinoms 
sakanims Talopa pla aniks nemodik in Melop. 


2. London binom glezif Nelija ; seistom in lefiid 

3. Stettin seistom nolulefiido des Berlin, Leipzig 
abu suliivesiido. 

4. Lifup menas li-evedom lonedikum in yelatum 
obsik ? 

5. Feilom Noliimelopelas binom modo gudikuin ka 
ut Yulopelas. 

6. No binos velatik, das Nelij seistom dis vid nolu- 
dikum ka Noliideut. 

7. Spido ! Miitoms gevegon, biifo neit beginom. 

8. No li-milagols stanofi, dub kel jimaladikel sufof 
dolis okik ? 

9. Lads e jipuls egevegoms dub lelod, abu obs 
egefutelobs ko puls. 

10. Cato afinom piikati alik sagol : Carthago miitom 

11. In siit kiom tabens e bakens modikiin sibinoms 

12. Belems Spiina binoms modo geilikum ka uts 
Jlesana u Saxaiia, Deuta valemo u Nelija, 

(6) Translate into Volapiik : 

1. The chief ranges of America stretch (setenon) 
North to South : those of Asia, East to "West. 

2. The highest mountains of South America are 

3. The capital of Bavaria lies 600 metres above 
the sea ; that of Spain, 600. 

4. "When did Columbus discover America? In 
the month of October of the year 1492. / 

5. Thanks to the kindness of thy uncle, that m 
that bad weather I found a place of shelter (slupop) 
in the nearest inn. 

6. The pupils sometimes answer the teacher with- 
out considering. 

7. In many German towns and villages people are 
still wont to smash crockery and glass before the 
door on the evening preceding the wedding. 

8. The Thuringian forest is visited yearly by a 
great number cf foreigners. 


9. Tlie growth since last century of the trans- 
oceanic colonies (possessions) of Great Britain is 

10. The German empire acquired its greatest trans- 
oceanic colony in East Africa. 

11. Vesuvius of Italy is the only active volcano of 
the European continent. 

12. China has more inhabitants than all Europe. 



1. Deligudik, sol! 

2. Vekomo, flen ! Siadolos oli ! 

3. Liko stadol ? 

4. Lebeno. 

5. Liko panemol ? 

6. Kiplad lodol ? 

7. Lodob in Beljan. 

8. Se zif kiom binol motofik ? 

9. Briissel binom motofazif obik. 

10. Paels olik li-lifoms nog ? 

11. Lifayelis limodik labol ? 

12. Labob lifayelis telselul. 

13. Jinol labon Hfayelis modikum. .^^ ^ 

14. Li-tavol ya lonedo in Deut ? 

15. No, sol ; emotavob te buf dels kil de jmissel. 

16. Adyo ! Visitolos obi suno denu ! 


x ^> Stom binom jonik adelo. 
2-. Sol litom ya sis godel ; binos lesumiko vamik. 

3. Binos ni tu vamik ni tu kalodik. 

4. Deno binos flukatimik ; godels e vendels binoms- 
ya lukalodik. 

5. Vedos nu glumik. 

G. Klodob, das olomibos odelo. 

7. Li-elilol toton ? 

8. Eflcdos iiclelo, ab no enifos ; sil ablibom kliihk. 


Do TEAT E Musio. 

1. Li-ebinol ya in teat nulik obsikr 

2. Si, lad, abinob us blif vig bal ; li-ol i ? 

3. Teatapled kimik papledom adelo, yofapled u 
liigapled ? 

4. Vipob logon damatelanii lekanitelas de Eichafd 

5. Kisi cedol do lop at? 

6. Musig binom lejonik. 

7. Li-elSol ya jikaniteli niilik ? 

8. Teat obsik labom egelo damatelis sikikiin. 

9. Jiblod olik li-binof jilofan mnsiga ? 

10. Si, vomiil kanitof i lebeno. 

11. Li-ogeton nog bilieti plo konzed odelik ? 


1. Kipladi golol so spido ? 

2. Vilob golon al stand al fidon. 

3. Vipob potiti gudik ole. 

4. Danob, ab pottit obik no obinom gletik, bi sciiob 

5. Vokolod boteli ! 

6. Kisi dalob blinon ole, sol ? 

7. Givolod obe pori loeta e glati vina leclik. 

8. Lofob vemo fidon gliinedi flifik. 

9. Li-vipol i milegi e loinadi al postab ? 

10. Lesi ; ga stopo ! No blinolod postabi, binos 
ya tn lato. miitobs golon al dom. 

11. Dlinobsos al lelab balvoto ! 


1. Vipob godeli gudik ole, sol. Dini kimik vilol 
lemon ? 

2. Vipob lemon stofi plo blit e blotaklot. 

3. Limodo met klofa blagik at kostom ? 

4. Makis telsefol. 

5 Li-vo ? Atos binos modo tu delidik. 

6. Dabegob miglamis tel juega. 

7. Eko mon plo can ! 

8. Adyo, sol ; begob bestimon obis i falo. 



1. Milmets limodik binoms de is al zif nilikiin ? 

2. Leils bals. also milmets velsefol. 

3. Veg li-binom gudik plo futel ? 

4. No; veg dugom da fot gletik e ovi flums ko 
pons baclik. 

5. Silt li-binom nesefik? 

6. 110. lilon nosi do lapinels. 

7. No binos valiko poligik, ni delo ni neito. 

8. Vegi kimik nititon vegon ? 

9. Sosus ukomol su bel, flekolod deto e tan, ven 
urivol flumi, nedeto. 

10. Otuvol i adelo menis satik su lanasiit, bi labobs 

11. Dani lacllik ! 

12. Yipob tavi labik ole ! 


Ven ek asakom filosopele Thales, kis binos tu- 
gedik menes valik, agesagom : " Spel, ibo i mens et 
laboms ati, kels laboms lenosi votik." 


Spartanels abinoms valopo pesevik du gesags 
blefik e dlefdl okik. Ven ek asakom rege spartanik 
Agis, solatis limodik alabom, asagom : " So modikis 
as zeslidoms al vikodon neflenis." 


NiUl zifaleyan man astanom e alubegom. Sol 
sembal. kel abeigolom, asakom ome, kikod lubegom. 
" sol' lofik ! " lubegel asagom, " nelab gletik esii- 
pitom obi: biif dels nemodik doniil obik ko lab 
valik peclefiledom." " Li-labol zepami de lopof olik 
das elabol nelabi at?" sol asakom. " Liedo," 
lubegel agesagom, " pedefiledom ko pliems lernanik.'' 


Ven sanel makabik aseistom su deilabed, flens 
omik asakoms ome, sanele kiom akanomsov konfi- 


don okis, if amalcadomsla. " One mob saiielis kil 
bizugik oles," sanel deilol asagom, "fe sevols valik 
omis, ab ekonsidols omis jlinu nemodo. Panemoms : 
maiof, vat e spaton. ofeii in but libik." 


"Kisi dukol is su vab ? " toladal asakom feilele, 
kel abeivegom la toladadom. " Zabi," feilel alovo- 
plikom toladale al lil. " No li-kanol sagon osi klei- 
liko," toladal asagom, " if binos nos votik? " " Flen 
lofik," feilel agesagom, u jevals obik getoms te sele- 
diko zabi ; ab if aplakomsla, das dukob zabi so 
modik. astadobov badiko ! " 


Yunel, kel anevelatom kosomo, akonom vono in 
sog do tiivs okik e de makabs, kelis elogom. Bevti 
votikos akonom i sukolosi : " Su tav oba latik ako- 
mob al zif. in nil kela lek som sibinom, das gegivom 
vodi ziilseziilna." Sol, keli nevelaton nejemik mena 
at askanom ya lonedo, asagom foviko : " Atos binos 
smalof velatik ! Labob leki modo jonikum su gued 
obik. If tlidob se dom godelo, vokob : godeli gudik, 
lek ! E gesagom foviko : Danob, sol benik ! " Sog 
lolik abeginom smilon, e sagon, das yunel et no falo 
nevelatom siso so nejemiko. 


In pag Nugana gliigakosek fibinom. Musigel, kel 
ipledom bafaviolini in lotop, agolom latiko in neit 
al dom e iipolom bafaviolini okik su bak. Veil agolom 
da fot, ludogs jol akoskomoms ome e aletoms seiiiton 
kleiliko desani oksik ome. Fug abiiiom nemogik, i 
tasteifam alik ibinomov vanlik. Musigel no asiie- 
nom lonedo, adasumom bafaviolini okik, apladom oki 
zenodii siit e abeginom to tlep oka gletik pledon 
lenamiko su bafaviolin okik. Ludogs abinoms peje- 
kol, e bi no anoloms, tuvemaf kimik abinom din, kel 
adibatonom so mekadiko, amogonoms. 

Lein, kel abinom ya baledik e no alabom namis 


satik al kanon yagon, adatikom kafi al lukijafon 
iiultidi oke. Asimulom maladi. Nims fota ako- 
moms al visiton regi oksi'k, ab padimidoms e palufi- 
doms fa lein. Fino i foxaf akomom al lein, yed 
ablibom bif ninavag leiiia e no avilom nitlidon, 
do lein asuflagom omi alos. Sikod lein asakom, kikod 
no avilom nitlidon ? Foxaf kafik agesagom : " Bi 
logob futavegedis nimas modik, kels egoloms al 
ninavag, ab futavegedis nonik nimas, kels igoloms 
se ninovag." 


Tedel, kel akosomom polon sali al zif nilelik dub 
mucuks okik, amiitom egelo stepon da flum du tavam 
at. Veil astepom da flum balna denu, mucuk aseslifom 
fadiko e alefalom ko fled okik. Sal adiflumom 
dilo in vat, e mucuk sustanol asenitom, das fled okik 
ivedom leitikum. Ven agolom da flum denu pos tim 
anik, abajedom oki desano e nena dub flaps akanorn 
pastigon sustanon. Tedel, kel padamom dub atos 
levemo, akonom osi nilele okik, e at akonsalom 
ome, suseiton spogis e laini mucuke e tano dukon 
omi da flum. Sosus mucuk akomom al flum, aba- 
jedom oki denu, ab atna al dam okik, ibo spogs e 
lain afuloms okis ko vat e fled abinom nu lutino telna 
so vetik. Siso, sagon, mucuk eseslifbm nevelo in 
flum denu. 


Abinos biif yels plu ka turn, ven Gothe avisitom 
ofen Tiiranafoti, dilo al snlogon meinopis usik ledii- 
kana Saxan-Weimar, kela diinal abinom, dilo al 
yagon ko lediik Karl August, gleflen okik, dilo al 
stuclon belemanati e planavoli belema lejonik, juitol 
leigiipo veiiudis lana. Du del teldik adutevom belis 
e nebelis, pato in zlimop de Dmenau, e du neit tel- 
clik aslipom su letuigs gliinik peinas tiiranik in yaga- 
ludom lutik. Balna vendel asiipitom omi zenodii fot 
su geil nilli II men an panemol Gickelhalin, makabik 
demii lukilogam jonik ovi belem pefotol. Sol iidisom 
in may eel stilik al vesiid, plid zelik vendela ziilulik 
iipakom oki ovi topof. Poedal alelogom devodiko 


deli deilol e nati flukatimik, kodol luladali. In lada- 
lod at apenoin me stib su vol ludoma boadik, keli 
legeil bela apolom, lianis at : 

Ove geils valik 

binom taked, 
in bimaklons valik 

tobo senol 
bliidi bal ; 

bodils seiloms in fot ; 
valadolod ga, suno 
takedol i ol. 

Ti pos yelatum. lank in tim motofadela okik latik 
poedal baledanik asiikom geili lesumik nog balna. 
Abetlidom Indomi et, ko istebom du dtips labik so 
modik ko plin okik, nu ya edeilol, e ko flens lofik 
votik. Su vol liens pepenol in tim et astanoms nog. 
Gothe amiitom dlenon, e neluimol dlenis adenuoni 
vodis latik : 

" Yaladolod ga, suno 
takedol i ol ! " 

Vo abinos latikna, das avisitom beli. Muls nemo- 
dik tano asliporn slipi tenalik. 



Paris, Place Malesherbes, 108, 

balul, lid, 1887. 

Sole J. /., Liverpool. 
Sol lofik, 

Labob soni keli vipob sedon al zif olik, dat 
lenadom plobo piiki nelijik. 

Abinob-ov vemo kotenik, if akanol-la lasumon omi 
in tedadom olik : alenadom-b'v otiipo piiki e tedi. 

Son obik labom yelis balsejol, binom vemo dutik 
se\'om bukami e penom nepb'ko piikis fleutik e talik 
[ Valadob gepiiki sunik, e blibo, Sol lofik, 

diinan olik divodikiin, 




Bordeaux, telul bid, 188V. 

Labob stimi nunon oli, dub ziilag at, das 
eleblimob in zif at stiti leboba e komitata labol plo 

C. D. 

Begob oli noeton disapenedi obik e bestimon obi 
suno ko komits olik. 

* This correspondence is, with the author's kind permission, 
aken from Professor Pflaumer's Vollstdndiger Lehrgang des 




Berlin, JciluL lOid. 1887. 

Melak obsik ko Ian olik evedom vemo pesetenol 
sis yels anik. Edanemobs sikodo soli D. in Odessa, 
as dunani obsik valikodik plo Lusan lolik. 

Egivobs ome dalami lensumon komitis plo kal 
obsik e kiton pelamis in nem obsik. 
Otuvol diso disapenedi sola D. 
Spelobs das ogebol vemo ofen medami omik plo 
boned ams olik. 

Diinans olik, 

F. K. & Ko. 

Stockholm, folul 30^, 1887. 
Soles F. & Ko., Paris. 

Egetobs bonedami de francs 10,000 de sols L. & 
Ch. in Orleans. Bi leno sevobs solis at, begobs olis 
vestigon va juitoms klb'dati modik in zif omsik. 

Pometobs biseo oles das ogebobs kautiko ntinis 
olsik, e lesagobs oles das obinos galod gletik plo obs, 
ven okanobs duinon oles in zit siimik. 

Binobs diinans olsik divodikiin, 

K. & P. 



Paris, lulul, Sid, 1837. 
Soles K. & P., Stockholm. 

No kanobs givb'n oles nlinis fiimik do tedadom, 
penomodbl in pened olsik de 30z'd, mula biifik. 

Sols L & Ch. laboms lemacemi gletik in siit joni- 
kiin zifa, ab nolobs nosi tefti monameds omsik. 
Konsalobs oles penb'n sole Ch. in E,., kel labom 
fetanis ko oms, sis yels inodumik. 

Spelobs das okanobs binbn pofiidikum oles votikna. 
Diinans olsik divodikiin, 

F. & Ko. 



Lyon, malul Ibid, 1887. 
Sole 0. Yokohama. 

Begobs oli lemon plo kal obsik e sedon obes ko 
naf balid kel odevegom al Flentan. 

Miglamis 4,000 satina Oshio. No vilobs givon 
nmo ka franis 75 a miglam. If volads satina disoms 
mb'diko, ven ogetol penedi at, valadol-6s vigs kil u 
fol, bufo lefulol komiti obsik. 

Binobs diinans olik divodikiin 

Ch. & B. 



Yokohama, velul 3Qid, 1887. 
Soles Ch. & e E., Lyon. 

Geptikol penede olsik de malul Ibid yela at, nunob 
olis das elemob, plo kal e ma komit olsik, miglamis 
4,000 Oshiosatina plo fraiis 70 a miglam. 

Begun desid olsik, osedob omis oles ko naf " Le 
Bequin " odevegol al Marseille, jolul 4id. 
Opelob obi * me tlat muls kil sis dat. 

D. 0. 


Madrid, jolul 25^, 1887. 
Soles A. frereSj Paris. 

Labob stimi nunon olis atoso das etlatob su ols: 
Fr. 2,500 muls 2 sis dat. Noetols-os tlati obik e 
lasumol-6s omi gudiko. 

D. 0, 

* Opelob, I will pay ; obi, myself : I will recoup myself. 



Paris, balsebalul 5id, 1887. 
Sole H., Wien. 

Pened at polovegivom ole fa sol A. S., bal cifas 
lebobadoma V. & Ko. in zif obsik. 

Sol S. desanom visiton Lostani al stabon fetaiiis 
bevii dom omik e lebobels anik Bomana e Nugana. 

Labol-6s gudi yufon fleni obik in beginam omik : 
obinob vemo denik ole plo flenof keli olabol plok'toi, e 
kanol numon su diinavil obik, ven flens olik oko- 
moms al Paris. 


JL r-tv^-'i't^j ^^ *+^^- <^r* - 



Stockholm, balsul 2Cto'd, 1886. 
Soles Ch. e F., in Marseille. 

Sukii nunod olsik de IQid amula do stad jafas in 
zif olsik, begob olis lemon plo kal obik smatubis 25 
leiilukaleiila, if tuvols likofi gudik, suamti fr. 1 - 80 a 

No lonob tu jalepiko suami, numol su ols tefii kud 
kudadinas obik, ab desidob lefolami fovik komita 

Sedols-6s obe lesami smalik, sosus ulemols leiili, e 
niinols-6s obe otiipo nemis katana e nafa, dat kanob 
dunon zesiidikosi tefii sefam. If binos mogik, 
fledols-6s smatubis su naf svedanik. 

Kanols canapenedon su ab plo suam nota olsik, mul 
bal sis dat. 

Spelob, das obinob ko jaf at balid e das okodom 
obi denuon oles komitis obik. D. D., 



1. Some Volapiikists occasionally place the adjective 
"before the noun (see 6), either to make it emphatic or to 
avoid a succession of words all ending in ik or lik ; but 
adjectives which precede the noun are declined and must 
agree with it. Thus in Cils binoms gudik, the adjective re- 
mains undeclined; but in gudiks cils the adjective agrees 
with its noun. "The teacher loves good and industrious 
pupils " may be translated either Tidel lofom julelis gudik e 
dutik; or, Tidel lofom gudikis julelis e dutik. 

Similarly it is permissible to use, instead of the possessive 
pronouns, obik, olik, omik, etc., the genitives of the personal 
pronouns oba, ola, oma, etc. ; thus instead of Mblod olik lejiJnik, 
we may say, Jiblod ola lejonik. The same endeavour to avoid 
the harsh sound ik wherever possible has led to the contrac- 
tion of mddiko into modo, balvotiko into balvoto, and the like. 

2. The interrogative particle li ( 8) may follow the verb 
if euphony requires it ; thus we may translate " Do you 
speak ? " either by li-pilkol ? or pilkol-li ? 

3. The reflective pronoun oki ( 17) may be joined to the 
verb thus : " They love themselves " may be translated either 
by (a) lofoms okis, or by (b) lofomsok, or by (c) lofokoms. Trans- 
lation (a) is no doubt most in harmony with English practice. 


Roots as a rule consist of two consonants and a vowel be- 
tween them ( 5) ; e.g. : 

tid, teach(ing) log, eye pilk, speech 

yag, chase lem, purchase lil, ear, etc. 

They are derived, on certain fixed principles, from Teutonic 
(English, German, and Dutch) and Latin (French, Italian, 
and Spanish) words ; thus : 

From the Latin fuga is derived fug, flight 
caput kap, head 

pagus pag, village 

populus pop, people 

* For this section the translator is partly indebted to Prof. Pflaumer's 
Vollstandiger Lehrgang des Volapuk. 


From the German Feld is derived fel, field 
Bier bil, beer 

Gans gan, goose 
Berg bel, mountain 

English bring blin 

cloth klot 

skill skil 

time tim 

shore jol 

French cheval jeval, horse 

guel kel, which 

de nouveau denu, anew, again 

durant du, during, etc. 

It will be observed that the original words are clipped, that 
r is turned into I, and ng into n. If a word begins with a 
vowel or an h (mute or sounded), the letter I is prefixed. 
Thus, Latin oculus becomes log, eye 
English ear lit 
French foret fot, forest 
Latin anima ,, Ian, soul 
English ape lep 
French o/re lof, offer 
English image mag ; and so on. 
From these roots numerous words are formed by composi- 
tion and by means of prefixes and suffixes. 


tid, teach ted, purchase 

tidon, to teach tedon, to buy 

tidel, teacher tedel, merchant 

tidal, great teacher tedal, wholesale merchant 

lopatidel, head-master 

jut, shoot mat, matrimony 

juton, to shoot maton, to marry 

jutel, he that shoots matel, husband 

jutal, marksman jimatel, wife 

matapometon, to betroth 

mek, make jon, beauty 

mekon, to make jonik, beautiful 

tnekad, might, power lejonik, very beautiful 
mekadik, powerful, mighty 

buk, book ledilk, grand-duke 

bukil, little book duk, lead 

cem, chamber, room dukon, to lead 

cemil, closet nindukon, to lead in, introduce 

bijop, bishop 

lebijop, archbishop pen, pen 

dilk, duke penon, to write 

penel, vrriter, clerk 
pened, a letter 
pendd, the document 
ninpendd, inscription. 
penot, treatise 
bepenon, to describe 
disapenon, to write under, sign 
disapenad, signature 

fat, father 
lufat, stepfather 
liifat, father-in-law 

nim, animal 
nimav, zoology 
lanim, courage 
lanitnan, encouragement 
lanim'6! take heart! cheer 


lanimalik, courageous, brave 
lanimaliko, bravely 

bel, mountain 

belem, mountain range 

nebel (no-mountain), valley 

bled, leaf 
bledem, foliage 

log, eye 
logon, to see 
denulogon, to see again 
logad, vision, sight 
loged, (a) glance, (a) look 


piiJc, speak lemacem, shop 

Flentapiik, the French Ian- vod, word; buk, book 

guage vodabuk, dictionary 

Volapiik, world-speech mon, money ; baled, age 

piikatidel, teacher of language bdledamon, pension 

logod, face 
lenlog, view 

lenlogon, to view, look at 
billogon, to foresee (biifu) 
logik, visible 

dulogik, through- visible, trans- 

loeg, observation 
loegon, to observe 
loegop, observatory 
loyam, sight, inspection 
zilogam, circumspection 

puk, speak 

pukdn, to speak 

pilkat, (a) speech, an address 

piikaton, to deliver an address 

piikav, philology 

pukel, speaker, orator 

piikof, eloquence 

piikofik, eloquent 

pukot, conversation 

okapukot, soliloquy (ok, self ) 

telapiikot, dialogue (tel, two) 

bepiikon, to speak upon, discuss 

gepilkon, to reply 

lupukon, to gossip 

nepiikdn (not to speak), to be 

eepukon, to speak out, express, 


iapukon, to contradict 
depiikon, to dispute 

motapiik, mother-tongue 
motazif, native city 
lit, light ; pol, carry 
litapol, lamp 
lem, purchase ; cent, room 

buk, book ; tedel, merchant 
bukatedel, bookseller 
fil, fire ; bel, mountain 
Jilabel, volcano 



A, particle (see p. 29). 
A, prefix (see p. 20). 
Ad, suffix (see p. 36). 
Af, suffix (see p. 40). 
Agiipdn, Egypt. 
Agiipdnel, Egyptian. 
Al, suffix (see p. 35). 
Al, towards. 
Al, to. 

Alik, every, each. 
Alos, thereto. 
Also, well then. 
Am, suffix (see p. 35). 
An, suffix (see p. 39). 
Anik, any, some, a few. 
Apod, apple. 
As, as. 

Aso, as well as. 
As sam (see voc. vii.). 
At, this (person). 
Atna, this time. 
Atos, this (thing). 
Atoso, herewith. 
Av, suffix (see p. 35). 
Avendelo, last evening. 
Ayelo, last year. 


Ba (see voc. iv.). 
Bad, bad, ill. 

Bafo ! bravo ! 
Bdk, back (noun). 
Bakel, baker. 

Baken, bakehouse. 

Bakon, to bake. 

Bal, one (numeral). 

Baled, age. 

Bdledik, aged, old. 

Bdledan, a grey -beard, an 
aged man. 

Bdledanik, hoary -headed. 

Balid, the first. 

Balido, firstly. 

Ballon, a million. 

Balsebalul, November. 

Balsetelul, December. 

Balsna, ten times. 

Balsnalik, tenth (adj.). 

.Ba/suZ, October. 

Baludel, Sunday. 

Baliido, at first. 

BaZttZ, January. 

Balvoto, each other, mutually, 

Ban, (a) bath. 

Banon, to bathe. 

Baydn, Bavaria. 

Bayanel, a Bavarian. 

Beatik, blessed, happy, de- 

Bed, bed. [ceased. 

I?e#, (a) request. 

Begin, commencement. 

Beginam, undertaking, enter- 

Beginon, to begin. 

Begon, to beg, request. 

Beigolon, to go by, go past. 

Bel, mountain. 

Belem, mountain range. 

Beljdn, Belgium. 

BeniJe, good, gracious. 


Beno, well, good. 

Bepenon, to describe. 

Bestimon, to honour. 

Bevii, among. 

Bi, because. 

Bif, before (locally). 

Bifo, in front (locally). 

Bil, beer, ale. 

Biliet, ticket. 

Bilop, alehouse. 

Bim, tree. 

Bimaklon, tree top. 

Bin, being. 

Binon, to be. 

Bimig, essence. [pation. 

Biseo, in advance, in antici- 

Bizugik, excellent. 

Bizugon, to prefer. 

Bldd, breath. 

Blag, blackness. 

Sliigik, black. 

Blefik, short. 

Blek, fracture, 

Blekon, to break. 

Blibon, to remain. 

Bliin, equipment, dowry. 

Blinon, to bring. 

Blit, trowsers. 

Blod, brother. 

Blot, breast. 

Blotaklot, waistcoat. 

Boad, wood. [wooden. 

Boadik, made of wood, 

Bob, purse. 

Bod, bread. 

Bod, bird. 

Bofik, both. 

Bomdn, Bohemia. 

Bonedam, subscription, order. 

Botel, waiter, butler. [ally). 

Bilf, Biifo, before (tempor- 

Buk, book. 

Bukam, book-keeping. 

Bum, act of building. 

Bttmamasel, architect. 

Bumot, (a) building. 

Bumon, to build. 

Bun, (a) pear. 

Bilo, primarily, prelim in- 

But, boot. [arily. 


Caf, kettle. [goods. 

Can, merchandise, wares, 

Cdnapened, bill of exchange. 

Cdnapened lalid, First of ex- 
change, [exchange. 

Cdnapened telid, Second of 

Cdnapenedon, to draw a bill. 

Cedon, to think of, to have an 

Gem, (a) room. [opinion of. 

Cif, chief, head, principal, 
manager. , 5i 

Cil, child. 

Cildn, Chili. 

Cin, machine. 

Cindn, China. 

Cod, justice. [bunal. 

Codef, court of justice, tri- 

Codel, judge. 

Codon, to judge. 


Da, prefix (see p. 36). 

Da, through. 

Dabalik, single. 

Ddbegon, to obtain by asking. 

Daduk, education. 

Dalam, authority, power of 

attorney, representative 


Dalebdn,to suffer want, starve. 
Daliton, to light up. [espy. 
Dalogon, to catch sight of, 
Dalon, to allow, permit. 
Ddldn, to be allowed. 
Dam, drama. 
Damatel, actor. 
Damatelam, representation. 
Dam, injury, hurt. [ & ge. 

Damon, to injure, hurt, dam- 
Danemon, nominate, appoint. 
Danik, grateful. 
Danon, to thank, owe thanks. 
Danoton, to enquire. 
Danu ! thanks ! 
Das, that. 

Dasumon, to seize upon, grasp. 
Dat, in order that. 
Datikon, (see Tikori) to invent. 


Dafiivon, to invent, discover. 

Datuv, invention. 

Datiiv, discovery. 

Davestigon, to find out by 

De, of. [searching. 

Deb, debt. 

Defiledon, to burn down. 

Deil, death. 

Deilon, to die. 

Dekom, descent, derivation. 

Del, suffix (see p. 34). 

Del, day. 

Delid, dearth. [costly. 

DelidiTe, dear, expensive, 

Delo, by day. 

Demii, on account of. 

Deno, nevertheless. 

Denu, again, anew. 

Denuon, to repeat. 

Des, from . . . till. 

Desdn, design, intention. 

Desdno, intentionally, design- 

Desdnon, to intend, plan. 

Desedon, to send away. 

Desid, desire. 

Dei, right hand. 

Detik, right (not left). 

Deutdn, Germany. 

Deutel, (a) German. 

Deutik, German (adj.). 

Devegon, to depart, leave har- 

Devod, devotion, worship. 

Devodik, devotional. 

Di, prefix (see p. 40). 

Dibatonon, to growl. 

Diblekon, to break in pieces, 
shiver, shatter. 

Dido, indeed, certainly. 

Difik, different, various. [melt. 

Diftumon, to flow asunder, 

Dll, (a) part. 

Dilo, partly. 

Dimidon, to rend, tear. 

Din, thing. 

Dis, under. 

Disapendd, signature. 

Disik, the lower. 

Diso, below, at foot. 

Dison, to go down, to set, to 


Distukon,tof\il\ down,dest roy. 
Divodik, devoted. 
Died, fear, dread. 
Dledon, to dread, fear. 
Dlefol, hitting the mark, fit. 

suitable, appropriate. 
Dlejon, to hit. 
Dlen, (a) tear. 
Dlenon, to weep. 
Dim, (a) beverage. 
Dlinon, to drink. 
Do, although. 
Do, of, concerning. 
Dog, dog. 
Dok, duck. 
Dol, pain. 
Dora, house. 
Domem, house gear. 
Domem taimik, earthenware, 
Domo, at home. [crockery, 
Du, whilst. 
Dub, by means of. 
Dugon, to lead. 
I)uk, duke. 
Dukdn, to lead, carry. 
Dul, duration. 
Dulof, durability. 
Dulon, to last, endure. 
Dunan, agent. 
Dunandt, agency. 
Dilnal, servant (of higher 

rank), minister. 
Dunavil, willingness to serve 

(cf. vilon). 
Diinel, servant (of lower rank), 

boots, porter. 
Dunik, active. 
Dunon, to do, act, practice. 
Diindn, to serve. 
Dunon, to do. 
Diip, hour. 
Dut, industry. 
DutiJc, industrious. 


E, and. 

E . . . e, as well as. 
Ed, suffix (see p. 3.^. 

Eft suffix (see p. 36). 

Egelo, always. 

Ek, somebody. 

Eko, behold, here (Lat. ecce). 

El, suffix (see p. 26). 

Em, suffix (see p. 40). 

En, suffix (see p. 40). 

Et, that (person). 

Etos, that (thing). 

Evelo, ever, at any time. 

Fa, of, from, by, by means of, 
on the part of. 

Fag, distance. 

FagiJc, far, distant. 

Fdlo, further, in future. 

Falon, to fall. 

Fdlon, to fell. 

Fat, father. 

Fatan, fatherland. 

Fatdndl, patriotism. 

Fatel, grandfather. 

Fad, chance. 

Fddiko, by chance, haply. 

Fe, prefix (see p. 36). 

Fe, in truth, in faith, truly. 

Fedugon, to mislead, seduce. 

Fegebon, to use up, consume. 

Fegolon, to pass away, elapse, 

Fell, acre. [perish. 

Feiiel, peasant. 

Feilem and feilotn, agricul- 
tural implements. 

Fetan, relationship, connec- 

Fiam, commercial firm. 

Fidon, to eat, dine. 

Fikop, Africa. 

Fikopel, (an) African. 

Fikulik, difficult. 

Fil, fire. 

Filalel, volcano. 

Filed, conflagration. 

Filedon, to burn. 

Filosop, philosophy. 

Fimdn, (a) continent, large 
mass of laud. 

Fin, end. 

Finam, termination. 

Fined, finger. 

Fino, finally. 

Fit, fish. 

Fizir, officer. 

Flap, a blow. 

Flapon, to strike. 

Fled, load, cargo, freight. 

Flekolon, to turn. 

Flen, friend. 

Flenof, friendliness. 

Flent, Flentdn, France. 

Flentel, (a) Frenchman. 

Flentik, French (adj.). 

Fleniig, friendship. 

Flif, freshness. 

Flifik, fresh. 

Flit, flight. 

Flodon, to freeze. 

Flol, flower. ^ 

Flolatim, spring. 

Fluk, fruit. 

Flukatim, autumn. 

Flum, river. 

Flumon, to flow. 

Fo, prefix (see p. 36). 

Foginel, foreigner. 

Fogivon, to forgive. 

Fol, four. 

Foldil, a quarter part. 

Folul, April. 

Foludel, Wednesday. 

Fomad, cheese. 

Fosefon, to assure, asseverate. 

Fot, forest. 

Foviko, forthwith, immedi- 
ately, anon. 

Foxaf, fox. 

Fug, flight. 

Fiilon, to fill. 

Fiimik, sure, precise, reliable. 

Fun, corpse. 

Fun, foundation. 

Funon, to kill. 

Funon, to found, establish. 

Fiinam, the founding, estalj> 

Fusild, physics. 

Fut, foot. 

Futaveged, footsteps. 

Ftito, on foot. 


Futel, pedestrian. 
Futelon, to walk. 

Ga, still, however, but. 

Gab, earl, count. 

Gad, garden. 

Gadel, gardener. 

Gadem, garden tools. 

Gal, joy. 

Gdlod, pleasure. 

Galon, to gladden. 

Ge, prefix (see p. 40). 

Gebon, to use. 

Gedlanon, to push back. 

Geil, height, summit. 

Geililc, high. 

Gepilk, (a) reply. 

Gesagon, to reply. 

Geton, to get. 

Gevegon, to travel back. 

Git, right (Lat. jus). 

Gitav, jurisprudence. 

Givon, to give. 

Glad, ice. 

Gladajuk, (a) skate. 

Gladajukon, to skate. 

Glam, gram. 

Glat, glass, tumbler. 

Gldtik, made of glass. 

Glebelem, chief mountain 


Gleflen, intimate friend. 
Glet, magnitude. 
Gletam, increase, expansion, 

Gletav, mathematics. 
Gletik, large, big, great. 
Glezif, chief town, capital. 
Glik, Greece. 
Glikel, (a) Greek. 
Gliig, church. 
Glum, gloom. 
Gliin, green. 
Gluned, vegetables. 
God, God. 
Godav, theology. 
Godavel, theologian. 
Golon, to go. 
Golud, gold. 

Godel, morning. 
Godelo, in the morning. 
Gud, goodness. 
Gudik, good. 
Gudikel, the good man. 
Gued, estate. 
Gun, gun. 
Guton, to taste. 
Gunapur, gunpowder. 


Hat, hat. 
Hel, hair. 
Het, hatred. 
Hetlik, ugly. 
Hit, heat. 
Hitatim, summer. 

I, also. 

Ilo, because. 

Id, suffix (see p. 26). 

If, if, when. 

Ik, suffix (see p. 14). 

In, in. 

Ino, inside. 

Is, here. 

Isik, of this place. 

It (see voc. iv.). 

Jdf, business affairs. 
Jalepik, strict, rigid, rigorous. 
Jedon, to throw, cast. 
Jekon, to startle, scare. 
Jem, shame. 
Jemod, disgrace. 
Jeval, horse. 

Jevalel, horseman, horse- 
Ji, fern, prefix. 
Jidunel, maidservant. 
Jikosel, cousin (f.). 
Jinon, to shine, seem, appear. 
Jlpul, girl. 
Jlesan, Silesia. 
Jol, shore, coast. 
Jol, eight. 

Jolul, August (the month). 
Jon, beauty. 


Jonik, beautiful. 

Jotldn, Scotland. 

Jueg, sugar. 

Juiton, to enjoy. 

Juk, shoe. 

Jul, school. 

Julabuk, school-book. 

Julel, scholar, pupil. 

Jii, till. 

Jiinu, hitherto. 

Juton, to shoot. 

Jveiz, Jveizan, Switzerland. 

Jveizel, a Swiss. 


Ka, than. 
Kaf, coffee. 

Kal, calculation, account. 
Kaled, calendar, almanac. 
Kalod, cold (noun). 
Kalodik, cold (adj.). 
Kalon, to calculate. 
Kaniton, to sing. 
Kanitel, singer, minstrel. 
Kanon (see voc. vi.). 
Kap, head. 
Eapal, intelligence. 
Kapalik, intelligent. 
Kapalon, to understand. 
Kapalub, intelligence. 
Ktif, stratagem, trick. 
Kafik, sly. 
Kan, cannon. 
Kat, cat. 
Katan, captain. 
Kaut, caution. 
Kautik, cautious. 
Kautiko, cautiously. 
Kel, which (person). 
Kelos, which (thing). 
Kiem, chemistry. 
Kif (see voc. iv.). 
Kikod, for what cause, where- 
fore, why. 
Kil, three. 
Kilel, a triplet. 
Kilid, the third. 
Kilido, thirdly. 
Kilon, to treble. 

Kilul, March (the month) 

Kiludel, Tuesday. 

Kim (see voc. iv.). < 

Kimid ? the how manieth ? 

Kindn, kingdom, empire. 

Kiton, to give quittance, sign 

Kiof (see voc. iv.). 

Kiom (see voc. iv.). 

Kiop ? where ? 
i Kios (see voc. iv.). 

Kiplad? where? 

Kiplada? whence? 

Kipladi ? whither ? 

Kis (see voc. iv.). 
i Kiiip ? when ? at what time ? 
i Kleilik, loud, clear. 
Klig, war. 
I Klod, belief, 
i Klodat, credit. 
i Klodon, to believe. 
I Klof, cloth. 
i Klon, top. 

Klot, garment. 

Klulik, clear. 

Ko, with, together with. 

Ko, where (relative). 

Kod, cause. 

Kodo, on which account, for 
which cause. 

Kodon, to cause. 

Komed, recommendation. 

Komip, (a) combat. 

Komipel, combatant. 

Komipon, to combat. 

Komit, commission, order. 

Komon, to come. 

Kon, narrative. 

Konfidon, to trust, entrust. 

Konon, to narrate. 

Konsalon, to advise. 

Konsidon, to consider, regard, 

Konzed, concert. 

Kosefon, to sacrifice. 

Kosek, consecration-festival. 

Kosekon, to sacrifice, devote. 

Kosel, cousin (m.). 

Kosemo, habitually. 

Koskomon, to come to meet, 
to meet. 


Kosdmon, to be \vont (Lat. 


Koston, to cost. 
Kotenik, satisfied, pleased. 
Krit, Christ. 
Kritav, Christianity. 
Kritef, Christendom. 
Kritik, Christian (adj.). 
Kud, care. 

Kudadin, concern, affair. 
Knk, kitchen. 
Kukaneif, kitchen-knife. 
Kukel, a cook. 
Kukon, to cook. 

La, suffix (see p. 28). 

La, at the (Fr. chez). 

Lab, fortune, luck. 

Labed, possession. 

Ldbem, property, wealth. 

Labik, lucky, fortunate. 

Ldbo, luckily. 

Labon, to have. 

Lad, lady. 

Lad, heart. 

Laddlod, mood. 

Ladlik, heartily, cordially. 

Laf, half (noun, Fr. moitie). 

Lafayel, half year. 

Lain, "wool. 

Lak, lake. 

Lanimdlik, bravely. 

Ldn, land, country. 

Lapin, prey, booty. 

Lapinon, to rob. 

Lapinel, robber. 

Lasumon, to take up (cf. 

Lat, late. 
Ldtik, last. 
Le, magnifying prefix (see 

p. 18). 

Lebalik, unique. 
Lebeno, very good. 
Leblimon, to establish. 
Lebob, bank (cf. 606). 
Ledik, red. 
Ledom, palace. 
Lediik, grand-duke. 

Lediikan, duchy. 

Lefulam, the carrying out, 


LefuliJn, to fulfil, to carry out. 
Lefild, east, orient. 
Legivot, (a) present, gift. 
Lehdt, helmet. 
Leigiipo, at the same time. 
Leil, mile. 
Lein, lion. 

Leitik, light (not heavy). 
-Le/6m'fc,exceedingly beautiful. 
Lek, echo. 

Lekanitel, master-singer. 
Lei, iron. 
Lelod, railway 
Lem, (a) purchase. 
Lemacem, shop. 
Leman, remainder. 
Lemasel, great master. 
Lemon, to buy. 
ien, at, by. 
Lenadon, to learn. 
Lenlilon, to listen to. 
iewo, not at all. 
Lensumon, to accept. 
Lenu, immediately. 
Lep, ape, monkey. 
Lesagon, to assure. 
Lesam, pattern, sample. 
Lesumik, agreeable. 
Leiil, oil. 
LeuluTe, olive. 
Leton, to let. 
Leyan, gate. 
Zfi, prefix (seep. 17). 
Zj'aw, verse. 
ii6, liberty. 
Libik, free, open. 
Libon, to liberate, set free. 
Liedo, unfortunately. 
Lieg, riches. 
Liegik, rich, wealthy. 
Liev, hare. 
Li/, life. 
Lifon, to live. 
Lifup, & lifetime. 
Liko ? how ? 
Likof, constitution, nature of 

thing, quality. 


Ifil, ear. 

Liladon, to read. 

lAlon, to hear. 

Limodik ? how much ? 

Lip, lip. 

Liton, to give light, shine. 

Lob, praise. 

Lobon, to praise. 

Lodam, load, cargo. 

Lodon, to load. 

iodcm, to dwell, inhabit. 

Loet, roast meat. 

Lofan, lover. 

Lofik, loved, dear. 

L-Jfon, to love. 

Logon, to see. 

.LoZifc, whole. 

Lomibon, to rain. 

Loned, length. 

Lonedbn, to lengthen. 

Lonon, to fix, determine. 

Lonon, to belong. 

Lop, opera. 

Lopik, the upper. 

Lopo, above, upstairs. 

Lopof, superior authority. 

Ldstdn, Austria. 

Lot, guest. 

Lo^op, Lotug, inn, hotel, 

Lovegivon, to hand over, 

Lovemelik, beyond the sea, 

Lovik, gently, softly. 
Lovopiikdn, to speak softly, 

Lu, diminutive prefix (see 

P- 17). 

Ludog, wolf. 
Ludom, hut. 
I/ufat, stepfather. 
Lufidon (see Fidon). 
Lug, sorrow. 
Liigapled, tragedy. 
Lugivon, to lend. 
Luhat, cap. 
Luimon, to moisten, wet. 

Lukijafdn, to procure. 

Lukilogam, view, prospect. 

n?, five. 

Luladal, sadness, melancholy. 

Lulel, a fiver. 

Lulon, to quintuple. 

Lulul, May (the month). 

Luliidel, Thursday. 

Lupdb, caterpillar. 

Lusan, Eussia. 

Lusdnel, (a) Russian. 

Lusdnik, Russian (adj.). 

Lut, air. 

Lutik, airy. 

Luiino, at least. 

Luvokon, to cry aloud (cf. 

Luvomik, womanish. 


Ma, conformably, in accord- 

ance with. 
Had, maturity. 
Hadik, ripe, mature. 
Mafof, moderation. [=1. 
Mak, (a) mark, German coin 
*Makab, (a) famous thing. 
Mdkab, fame. 

Mdkabik, famous, celebrated. 
Mai, six. 
Malddik, ill. 
Malddikel, (a) patient. 
Malddon, to fall ill. 
Maldn, to announce, indicate. 
Hdliidel, Friday. 
Mdlul, June. 
Man, man (Lat. vir). 
Masel, master. 
Mat and Mated, marriage, 

Matel, husband. 
Matapdmeton, to betroth. 
Mayed, majesty. 
Me, with, by means of. 
Med, middle. 
Medam, action of intermedi- 


* Malcabs zifa, wonders, sights of a city. 


Medin, medicine. [cine. 

Miisig, music. 

Medinav, the science of medi- 

Musigel, musician. 

Medinel, physician, surgeon. 
Mediton,to meditate, consider, 

Muton (see voc. vi.). 



Medon, to act as intermediary 
(cf. med.). 

Na, suffix (see p. 27) 
Nad, needle. 

Meinop, a mine. 

Naf, ship. 

MeTtad, might, power. 

Nnkomon, to arrive. 

Mekadik, mighty. 

Nam, hand. 

Mekon, to make. 

Nam, strength, power. 

Me, with, by means of. 

NdmiTe, strong, vigorous. 

Mel, the sea, ocean. 

Ndmon, to invigorate, 

Melak, intercourse. 
Melop, America. 

Nat, nature. [strengthen. 
Natav, natural science. 

Melopel, (an) American. 

No, prefix (see p. 23). 

Men, man (Lat. homo). 

Neb, near by. 

Menad, humanity, mankind. 
Met, metre (39'37 in.), 

Nebel, valley. 
Nedet, left, not right (cf. det). 

*Miqlam, kilogram. 

Nedon, to need, want. 

Migdn, to mix, mingle. 

Nef, nephew. 

Mil, a thousand. 

Nefikulik, easy. 

Milagon, to admire. 

Neflen, enemy. 

Mileg, butter. 

Negelo, never. 

Milig, milk. 

Neif, knife. 

Milmet, kilometre = 5 furlongs. 

Neit, night. 

Min, mineral. 

Neito, at night. 

Minav, mineralogy. 

Nejemik, shameless. 

Mit, meat, flesh. 

Nek, nobody. 

Modik, much. 

Nelabo, unluckily. 

Modiks, many. 

Nelabon, to lack. 

Modo, much (see p. 21). 
Mogik, possible. 
Mogonon, to run away, escape. 

Nelijan, England. 
Nelijel, Englishman. 
Nelijik, English (adj.). 

Mon, money. 

Neluimon, to wipe, dry. 

Monamed, monetary means 

Nelum, thirst. 

(cf. med). 

Nem, name. 

Monitel, (a) rider. [mal). 

Nemodik, few. 

Moniton, to ride (on an ani- 

Nemon, to name. 

Mot, mother. [Tdvdn. 

Nen, without (Lat. sine). 

Motdvon, to start from (see 

Nendas, without that, unless. 

Motof, birth. 

Nepoko, free from fault (cf. 

Motofazif, native town. 


Motofik, native of. 

Nepuk, silence. 

Mucuk, mule. 

Nevelo, never. 

Mufon, to move. 

Ni . . . ni, neither . . . nor. 

Mul, month. 

Niddn, India, 

Mun, moon. 

Nif, snow. 

3ft, contr. from ,nil=l,000; cf. glam. 


Nifatim, winter. 

Nifbn, to snow. 

N : !lc, suffix (see p. 29). 

Nil, vicinity, neighbourhood. | 

Nilel, neighbour. 

Nilik, near. 

Nilon, to approach. 

Nilii, near by. 

Nim, animal. 

Nimav, zoology. 

Ninfliimon, to terminate (said 
of a river), to flow into. 

Ninavag, cave. 

Nindilam, classification, 
grouping, distribution. 

NindiliJii, to classify, group, 

Ninlodel, inhabitant. 

Nitlidun, to enter. 

Niver, university. 

No nog, not yet. 

No, not very. 

Noetdn, to take note of, notice. 

Nog, as yet. 

Nok, uncle. 

Nol, knowledge. 

Nolel, scholar, savant. 

Nolik, scientific. 

Nolon, to know. 

Nolild, north. 

Noliimelop, Xorth America. 

NoliimelopeJ, (a) Xorth 

Nniiik, no, none (adverbially). 

Nos, nothing. 

Not, information, announce- 

NH, now. 

Nud, nose. 

Nugtin, Hungary. 

Nulik, new. 

Nuliid, food, nourishment. 

Num, number. 

Numon, to count. 

Nun, information, communi- 

Nunod, report, communica- 

Nunon, to announce. 

AXD 6. 

0, prefix (see p. 20). 
O, suffix (see pp. 26, 35). 
6! ahi! eh! 

0, suffix (see p. 40). 
Ob, I. 

Obik, my. 

Od, suffix (see p. 26). 

Odelo, to-morrow. 

Of, she. 

Of, suffix (see p. 40). 

Of en, often. [fern. noun). 

(jfik, his or her (before a 

Ok, himself, herself, itself. 

01, suffix (see p. 31). 

Olik. thy. [masc. noun). 

Omik, his or her (before a 
On, suffix (see p. 26). 
Op, suffix (see p. 39). 
Op, suffix (see p. 39). 
Os, suffix (see p. 26). 
Ot, the same. 

Otiipo, at the same time, con- 
temporaneously (cf. tup). 
Ov, suffix (see p. 29). 
Ovi, over. 


Pal, butterfly. 
Paels, parents. 
Pag, village. 
Pakon, to spi'ead. 
PanemiJn, to be called, named. 
Pato, specially. 
Pavn, lb. (also ). 
Pern, pine-tree. 
Pejekdl, startled. 
Pelam, payment. 
Felon, to pay. 
Pened, (a) letter (Lat. epi~ 


Pcnijn, to write. 
Pesctenitl, extensive. 
Pesevo (see voc. x.). 
Fir, pyramid. 
Fid, except. 

Pladon, to place, [aware of. 
PlakiJn, to learn, become 
Plan, plant. 


Planav, botany. 

Pled, piece, play. 

Pledon, to play. 

Plidon, to please. 

Pliem, house gear. 

Plin, prince. 

Plo, for. 

Plobo, properly, thoroughly. 

Plofed, professor. 

Plokon, to pluck. 

Plos, therefor, for it. 

Plu ka, more than. 

Poed, poetry, poesy. 

Poedal, (a) great poet. 

Poedat, poem. 

Poedel, poet. 

Pof, haven, port. 

Pof, poverty. 

Pofik, poor. 

Pofiid, profit. 

Pofiidik, profitable, useful. 

Pdk, fault. 

Pokik, faulty. 

Polig, danger. 

Poligik, dangerous. 

Polon, to carry. 

Pom, fruit (Lat. pomum). 

Pometun, to promise, engage. 

Pon, bridge. 

Pon, penalty. 

Pop, paper. 

Popem, copybook (Fr. cahier). 

For, portion. 

Pos, after. 

Postal, desert (cf. fob). 

Potit, appetite. 

Piid, peace. 4- 

Pitfc, Pukad, speech. 

Piikav, philology. 

Piikun, to speak. 

Piikof, conversation, dialogue. 

P7, boy. 

Pur, powder. 


Beg, king. 

Bivon, to reach, attain. 

Eomel, (a) Komau. 


Sagon, to say. 
Sale, (a) sack. 
SdJciJn, to ask. 
Sanel, physician, surgeon. 
Sap, wisdom. 
Sapal, sage. 
Sapav, philosophy. 
Satin, silk. 

SiitiJn, to suffice, be enough. 
Saun, health. 
Saunik, healthy. 
Saxdn, Saxony. 
Se, out, out of. 
Sedan, to send. 
Sefam, insurance. 
Sefik, secure, safe. 
Be/on, to secure, insure, make 


Segun, according. 
SeiliJn, to be silent, to keep 


SeistiJn, to lie, be situated. 
Seledik, seldom. 
Sembal, some one, a certain 


Senitun, to perceive, feel. 
SeniJn, to feel. 
SeslupiJn, to slip out. 
Setenon, to extend, stretch. 
SevokiJn, to exclaim. 
Sevun, to know (Fr. connaitrc}. 
Si, yes. 
Siadun, to set. 
SibiniJn, to exist (Fr. se 


Sikik, distinguished. 
Sikod, therefore. 
SH, the sky, firmament. 
Silop, Asia. 
Silopel, Asiatic. 
Sinuili'iii, to simulate, pretend. 
Sis, since. 
Skani'm, to vex. 
Skit, leather. 
Slifun, to slip, fall. 
Slip, sleep. 
Slipon, to sleep. 
Slup, slip. [shelter. 

SlupiJp, loophole, hiding-place, 


Sma, dimin. prefix (see p. IS). 

Smabed, nest. 

Smabim, shrub. 

Smacem, small room, boudoir. 

Smalik, small. 

Smalijf, trifle. 

Smazigad, cigarette. 

Smilon, to smile, laugh. 

SmoJciJn, to smoke. 

Snek, snake. 

Snekajlt, eel. 

So, so. 

Sog, company. 

Sol, the sun. 

Sol, master, Mr., sir. 

Solat, soldier. 

Som, such. 

Son, son. 

Sosus, as soon as. 

Sotimo, at times, occasion- 
ally, [nomical. 

S 'pal Ik, sparing, thrifty, eco- 

Spalun, to put by, economise. 

Spartan, Sparta (country). 

Spartdnel, (a) Spartan. 

Span, Spain. 

Spat, (a) walk. 

SpatiJn, to take a walk. 

Spel, hope (noun). 

Spid, speed. 

Spido ! be quick ! quickly ! 

SpidiJn, to hasten. 

Spod, correspondence. 

SpodiJn, to correspond. 

Spot/, sponge. 

Stab, foundation, bottom. 

Stabiko, from the bottom, 

Stabon, to establish. 

Stad, state, position. 

Stadon (see voc. iv.). 

Stay, stag. 

Stan, stand. 

Stanijf, constancy. 

Stand, dining-room, restau- 

Stebon, to stay, tarry. 

Stem, steam. 

StepiJn, to step, stride, wade. 

Stib, pencil. 

StifjiJn, to urge, induce. 

Stil, silent.' 

8tim, honour. 

Stimon, to honour. 

Stit, establishment. 

Btof, stuff, material. 

Stok, storey, floor (of a house). 

Stopon, to stop. 

Stom, weather. 

Ston, a stone. 

Studel, a student. 

StudlJn, to study. 

Stuk, edifice, structure. 

Stun, astonishment. 

Stunik, astonishing. 

Stimon, to be astonished. 

Su, up, upon, on. 

Suiim, price, sum. 

SuamiJn, to amount. 

Suemon, to comprehend. 

Siienun, to hesitate. 

Suflagun, to summon, chal- 

Sufon, to suffer. 

Sugiv, task, exercise. 

Siikon, to follow. 

Sukon, to seek. 

Sukii, following, in accord- 
ance with. 

Sulogun, to inspect, survey. 

Suliid, south. 

Sumon, to take. 

Sum, similarity, analogy. 

Siimik, similar, analogous. 

Suno, soon. 

Suj), soup. 

Sitpiton, to surprise, overtake, 

Suseiton, to load. 

SustaniJn, to get up, rise. 

Siit, street, road. 

^. T:-~ v t 
Tab, table. 
Tabak, tobacco. 
Taben, carpenter's shop. 
Taim, clay. 

Taimik, made of clay, earthen. 
Tak, rest. 

Tdked, repose. 

Takedon, to repose. 

Tal, earth. 

Tdl, Tallin, Italy. 

Talav, geology. 

Taled, geography. 

Talop, Australia. 

Talopel, Australian. 

Tan, then. 

Tasteifam, resistance, defence. 

Tav, journey, voyage. 

Tdvel, traveller. 

Tdvon, to travel. 

Te, only, not till. 

Teat, theatre, stage. 

Ted, trade, commerce. 

Tedadom, commei-cial house. 

Tedal, wholesale merchant. 

Tedel, merchant, trader. 

Tedon, to trade. 

Tefil, concerning, respecting. 

Tel, two. 

Teldik, many a one. 

Telel, (a) pair. 

Telid, the second. 

Telido, secondly. 

Telun, to double. 

Telsidna, the twentieth time. 

Telsidno, for the twentieth 


TehnaliJc, twentieth (adj.). 
Teliidel, Monday. 
Telul, February. 
Tenalik, eternal. 
Ti, almost. 
Tid, act of teaching, lesson, 

Tidel, teacher. 
Tidon, to teach. 
Tied, tea. 
Tif, thief, theft. 
Tik, thought. 
Tikdl, spirit. 
Tikam, consideration. 
Tikav, logic. 
Tikon, to think. 
Tim, time. 
Timil, moment. 
Timilo, momentarily. 
Tlat, draft, bill of exchange. 

Tlep, fright, terror. 

Tlidon, to tread, step. 

To, in spite of. 

Tobo. hardly. 

Tolad, custom, import or ex- 
port duty. 

Toladal, custom-house officer. 

Toladon, to pay toll or duty. 

Ton, (a) tone. 

Toned, (a) ton (1,000 kilogs.). 

Tonod, loud sound. 

Topdf, region, landscape. 

Tot,, thunder (noun). 

TdtiJn, to thunder. 

Tu, to, too. 

TuduniJn, to exaggerate. 

'1 'ugedik, together, in common, 

Tuig, twig, branch. 

Tulon, to turn. 

Turn, hundred. 

Tupon, to disturb. 

Tup, period of time. 

Tuvemaf, monster. 

Tuvdn, to find. 

Turdn, Thuringia. 


17, or. 

U, suffix (see p. 40). 

Ud, suffix (see p. 39). 

Udelo, the day after to-mor- 

Ufj, suffix (see p. 40). 

VI, suffix (see p. 34). 

Umo, more, in a higher de- 

Up, suffix (see p. 40). 

Us, there. 

ITtik, of that place. ,. n 

Ut, he (dem. pron.). 4 Ot^U J ' 

l sXa/Jc' 
*' V. 

Va, if, whether. 

Vab, wagon, cart, carriage. 

Vadelo, daily, every day. 

Vag, vacuum. 

Va'ladon, to wait. 


Valaddp, waiting room. 
Valemo, generally. 
Valik, all. 
Valiko, in general. 
Valilcodik, universal, [where. 
Valopo, ^ universally, every- 
Vam, warmth. 
Vamik, warm. 
VanliJc, in vain. 
Vanliko, vainly. 
Vat, water. 
Ved, origin. 
Vedon, to become. 
Veg, way, road. 
Vegon, to travel. 
VeJcuino ! welcome ! 
Vel, seven- 
Velat, truth. 
Velatik, true. 

VelatiJn, to speak the truth. 
Velul, July. 
Velildel, Saturday. 
Vemo, very. 
Ven, when. 
Vendel, evening. 
Venud, charm, beauty. 
VestigiJn, to investigate. 
Vesiid, west. 
Vetik, weighty, heavy. 
Veiitik, weighty, important. 
Vid, width, latitude. 
Vig, week. 
Vikod, victory. 
Vikodon, to conquer. 
Viliko, willingly. 
ViliJn, to will. 
Vip, (a) wish. 
Vipun, to wish. 
Vin, wine. 
Fm7, (a) visit. 
Visitun, to visit. 
Fo, true, truly. 
Vob, work. 

Vobel, worker, workman. 
Vobon, to work. 
Vubon, to acquire. 
VoJcon, to cry. 
Vol, world. 

Volapiik, world-speech, uni- 
versal language. 

Volad, worth, value, price. 
Vom, woman. 
VomiJc, womanly. 
Vomiil, Miss. 
Votile, other. 
Vod, word. 
Vol, wall. 

Vuno, once upon a time, for- 

Votikna, another time. 
Vun (a) wound. 
Vunon, to wound. 


TFtew, Vienna. 


Xa&, axis, axle. 


Ya, already. 

Yog, chase, hunt. 

Yagel, huntsman. 

Yagon, to hunt. 

Yan, door. 

Yed, but, however. 

Yel, year. 

Yelatim, season. 

Yelatum, century. 

Yof, delight, merriment. 

Yofapled, comedy. 

Yuf, help. 

Yufon, to help. 

Yulop, Europe. 

Yidopel, (a) European. 

Yun, youth (Lat. juvenia). 

Yunel, (a) youth, young man. 

YuniJe, young. 

Yunlik, youthful. 

Zab, oats. 
Zeil, goal. 
Zel, festivity. 
Zelal, festive mood. 
Zelik, festive, solemn. 
Zendel, midday. 
Zeneit, midnight. 
Zenodii, in the middle. 


Zepam, consent, approval, 


Zepon, to consent, approve. 
Zesiidik, necessary, needful. 
Zesudon, to be necessary. 
Zib, food. 
Zif, town, city. 
'Zigad, cigar. 
Zil, zeal. 
Zilik, zealous. 
Zit, case, occurrence. 

Zil, round, around. 

Zill, nine. 

Ziilag, (a) circular. 

Zillid, September. 

Z'iim, circle. 

Ziimdn, 'to encircle, surround. 

Zilmop, environs. 

Zun, anger. 

Z-uniJe, angry. 

Ziip, appendix. [ciple. 

Zilpel, adherent, follower, dis- 




Above, upstairs, lopo. 
According, segun. 
Account, calculation, kal. 
Acquire (verb), vobon. 
Acre, field, feil. 
Act of teaching, lesson, in- 

struction, tid. 
Active, dunik. 
Actor, damatel. 
Adherent, follower, disciple, 


Admire, milagon. 
Advise, konsalon. 
Africa, Fikop. 
African (noun), Fikopel. 
After, pos. 
Again, denu. 
Age, baled. 
Aged, baledik. 
Aged man, baledan. 
Agent, duuan. 
Agreeable, lesuniik. 
Agricultural implements, 

feilem, feilom. 
Air, lut. 
Airy, lutik. 
Ale, beer, bil. 
Alehouse, bilop. 
All, valik. 
Allow, dalon. 
Almost, ti. 
Already, ya. 
Also, i. 
AlthougJi, do. 
Always, egelo. 
America, Melop. 
American (noun), Melopel. 

Amidst, zenodii. 

Among, bevii. 

Amount (verb), suamon. 

Anger, zun. 

Angry, zunik. 

Animal, nim. 

Announce, indicate, malon, 

And, e. ^ 

Any, anlk. 

Ape, monkey, lep. 

Appear, seem, shine, jincu. 

Appendix, ziip. 

Appetite, potit. 

Apple, apod. 

Approach, nilon. 

Appropriate, Jit, suitable t 


April, Folul. 
Architect, bumamasel. 
Arrive, nakb'mon. 
As, as. 
As yet, nog. 
Asia, Silop. ' 
Asiatic (noun), Silopel . 
Ask (verb), sakon. 
Assure, asseverate, fosefon. 
As soon as, sosus. 
As well as, aso. 
Astonished, to be, stunon. 
Astonishing, stunik. 
Astonishment, stun. 
At, by, len. 
Attain, reacJi, rivon. 
At home, domo. 
At least, luiino. 
At times, occasionally, sotimo. 
August, Johul. 
Australia, Talop. 


Atistralian (noun), Talopel. 
Author, bukel. 
Autumn, flukatim. 
Axis, axle, xab. 


Sack (noun), bak. 

Sad (adj.), bad. 

Bad (adv.), badik, badlik. 

Badly, badiko, badliko. 

Bake, bakon. 

Baker, bakel. 

Bath, ban. 

Bathe, banon. 

Bavaria, Bayan. 

Bavarian (noun), Bayanel. 

Be (verb), binon. 

Beaiity, jQn, yenud. 

Beautifully, jonik. 

Because, bi. 

Become (verb), vedon. 

Bed, bed. 

Beer, bil. 

Befall, overtake, surprise, supt- 


Before (locally), bif. 
Before (temporally), bufo. 
Beg (verb), begon. 
Begin, beginb'n. [begin. 

Beginning, commencement, 
Behold here, eko. 
Being (noun), bin. 
Belief, klod. 
Believe (verb), klodiin. 
Belgium, Bel Jan. 
Belong, lonon. 
Below, diso. 
Betroth, matapometo'n. 
Beverage, dlin. 
Beyond the sea, transoceanic, 


Big, large, great, gletik. 
BUI of exchange, canapened. 
Bird, bod. 
Birth, moto'f. 
Black (adj.), blagik. 
Blackness, bliig. 
Blessed, beatik. 
Bloiv, slap (noun), flap. 
Book, buk. 

Boot, but. 

Booty, prey, lapiu. 

Botany, planav. 

Bottom, foundation, stab. 

Both, bofik. 

Boudoir, small room, smaccm. 

Boy, pul. 

Branch, hvig, tuig. 

Bravely, lanimelik. 

Bravo ''. baf 6 ! 

Break (verb), blekou. 

Bread, bod. 

Breast, blot. 

Breath, blad. 

Bridge, pon. 

Bring, blinon. 

Brother, blod. 

.BtuZd (verb), bumon. 

Building (noun), bumot. 

Burn (verb), filedon. 

Bit/, ab, yed. 

Butler, betel. 

Butter, mileg. 

Butterfly, pab. 

JBw?/, lemon. 

2?i/, a<, len. 

5?/ wean* o/, dub. 


Calculate, reckon, kalon. 
Calculation, account, kal. 
Calender, almanac, kaled. 
Ca?t, 6e abZe, kanon. 
Cannon, kan. 
(7ap> luhat. 

Capital, chief city, glezif. 
Cargo, load, freight, fled, 


Carry (verb), polon. 
Carriage, wagon, vab. 
Caii, vab. 

Cast, throw (verb), jedon. 
Cat, kat. 

Catch sight of, dalogon. 
Caterpillar, lupab. 
Cause (noun), kod. 
Cause (verb), kodon. 
Cave, ninavag. 
Celebrated, famous, makabik. 


Century, yelatura. 
Certainly, indeed, dido. 
Challenge, summon (verb), 

Chance, fad. 
Charm, beauty, venud. 
Chase, hunt, yag. 
Cheese, fomad. 
Chemistry, kiem. 
Child, cil. 
Chili, Ciliin. 
China, Cinan. 
Christ, Krit. 
Christian (adj.). kritik. 
Christianity, kritav. 
Christendom, kritef . 
Church, gliig. 
Cigar, zigad. 
Cigarette, smazigad. 
Circle, ziim. 
Circular (noun), zulag. 
City, town, zif. 
Classification, grouping, nin- 


Classify^ nindilon. 
Clay, taim. 

Clear, loud, kleilik, kliilik. 
Cloth, klof. 
Coast, shore, jol. 
Coffee, kaf. 
Cold (noun), kalod. 
Cold (adj.), kalodik. 
Combat (noun), komip. 
Combat (verb), komipon. 
Combatant, komipel. 
Come, komon. 
Comedy, yofapled. 
Commencement, begin. 
Commerce, trade, ted. 
Common, in common, together, 

Company, sog. 
Comprehend, suemon. 
Concerning, of, do. 
Concert, konzed. 
Conflagration, filed. 
Conquer (verb), vikodon. 
Consecration festival, kosok. 
Consent (noun), zepam. 
Consent (verb), zepon. 

Consider, regard, konsidon. 
Consider, meditate, Hunk, mc- 


Consideration, tikam. 
Constancy, stanof. 
Constitution, nature of things, 


Consume, use iip, fegebon . 
Continent, large mass of land, 


Conversation, dialogue, piikot. 
Cook (noun), kukel. 
Cook (verb), kukon. 
Copy-book (Fr.cahier), pb'pem. 
Cordially, heartily, ladlik. 
Corpse, fun. 
Cost (verb), koston. 
Costly, delidik. 
Count (verb), numon. 
Count, earl, gab. 
Country, land, liin. 
Court of justice, tribunal, 


Cousin (m), kosel. 
Crockery, domera taimik. 
Cry (verb), vokon. 
Cunning, sly, kafik. 
Custom, import or export duty, 

Custom-house officer, toladal. 


Daily, every day, vadclo. 

Danger, po'lig. 

Dangerous, poligik. 

Day, del. 

Dear, delidik. 

Dearth, delid. 

Debt, deb. 

Dear, beloved, lofik. 

Death, deil. 

Deceased, beatik. 

December, Balsetelul. [kon. 

Dedicate, devote (verb), kose- 

Defence, resistance, tasteit'am. 

Delight, merriment, yof. 

Descend, set, go down, diso'n. 
Describe, bepenon. 

Desert (at dinner), postab, (cf. 


Design, intention, desiin. 
Designedly, desiino. 
Destroy, pull down, distnkoru 
Devotion, worship, devod. 
Devotional, devotik. 
Die, deilon. 
Different, dink. 
Difficult, hard, fikulik. 
Dine, eat, fidoii. 
Disciple, follower, adherent, 


Dialogue, conversation, pukot. 
Discover (verb), datuvon. 
Discovery, datiiv. 
Disgrace, jemod. 
Distance, fag. 
Distant, fagik. 
Distinguished, sikik. 
Disturb (verb), tupon. 
Do (verb), dunon. 
Dog, dog. 
Door, yan. 
Double (verb), telon. 
Dowry, blim. 
Drama, dam. 
Dread, fear (noun), died. 
Dread, fear (verb), dledon, 
Dwell, inhabit, lodon. 
Duchy, diikan, lediikan. 
Duck, dok. 

Duke, diik. t ^ 

Durability, dulof. 
Duration, dul. 
Duty (on import or export), 



Each, alik. 

Each other, balvoto. 

Ear, lil. 

Earthen, made of clay, taimik. 

Earl, count, gab. 

Eartlienware, domem taimik. 

East, orient, lefiid. 

Easy, nefikulik. 

Echo, lek. 

Economical, sparing, thrifty, 

Economize, save up, put hi, 

Edifice, structure, stuk. 

Eat, dine, fidon. 

Education, dadnt. 

Eel, snekafit. 

Egypt, _AgUpan. 

Egyptian (noun), AgiipancL 

Eight, jol. 

Elapse, pass av:ay, perish, 

Empire, kingdom, kiniin. 

Encircle, surround, ziimon. 

End, fin. 

Endure, last, dulou. 

Enemy, ueflen. 

Engage, prom ise, pometon. 

England, Nelijiin. 

Englishman, Xelijel. 

English (Adj.), Nelijik. 

Enter, nitlidon. 

Enjoy, juiton. 

Enlargement, expansion, in- 
crease, gletam. 

Entrust, trust (verb), konfidon. 
i Equipment, blim. 

Escape, run aicay (vei'b), mo- 

Espy, dalogon. 

Essence, biuug. 

Estate, gued. 

Eternal, telnalik. 

Europe, Yulop. 

European (noun), Yulopel. 

Evening, vendel. 

Ei-eryi'Ihere, universally, va- 

Ever (at any time), evelo. 

Every, alik. 

Exaggerate (verb), tudunon, 

Excellent, bizugik. 

Except, pliu 

Exercise, task, sugiv. 

Exclaim, (verb), sevokon. 

Exist (Fr. se trouver), sibiuiin, 

Expansion, increase, enlarge- 
ment, gletam. 

Expensive, delidik. 

Extend, stretch (verb), setenon. 


Fall (verb), falon. 

Fall, slip (verb), slifon. 

Fall ill (verb), maladon. 

Fame, makab. 

Famous, celebrated, makabik. 

Far, fagik. 

Father, fat. 

FatJierland, fatan. 

Fear, dread (noun), died. 

Fear, dread (verb), dledon. 

February, Telul. 

Feel (verb), senon. 

Feel, perceive (verb), seniton. 

Fell (verb), falon. 

Festive, solemn, zelik. 

Festive mood, zelal. 

Festivity, zel. 

Few, afeiv, anik, nemSdik. 

Field, acre, fell. 

Fill (verb), fulon. 

Find (verb), tuvon. 

Finger, fined. 

Fire, fil. 

Firmament, sky, sil. 

First, balid. 

Firstly, balido. 

First of exchange, cilnapened 

Fish, fit. 
Fit, suitable, appropriate, die- 


.Five, lal. 
Flesh, meat, mit. 
Flight ( from fly), flit. 
J%7* (from flee), fug. 
Flow (verb), flumon. 
Flower, flol. 
Folloto (verb), sukon. 
Follower, adherent, disciple, 


Food, nourishment, nullid. 
Food, zib. 
Foot, fat. 

Poof, on foot, futo. 
Footstep, futaveged. 

Por (prep.), plo. 

Foreigner, foginel. 

JPoresi, fot, 

Forgive, pardon, fogivon. 

Formerly, once upon a time, 

Forthioith, immediately, anon, 


Fortune, luck, lab. 
Fortunate, lucky, liibik. 
Foundation, bottom, stab. 
Four, fol. 
Fox, foxaf . 
Fracture, blek. 
France, Flent, Flentan. 
Free, open, libik. 
Freeze, flodon. 
FreigU, cargo, load, lodam. 
French (adj.), Flentik. 
Frenchman, Flentel. 
Fresh (adj.), flink, 
Freshness, flif. 
Friday, Maludel. 
Friend, flen. 
Friendliness, flenof. 
Friendship, fleniig. 
Fright, terror, tlep. 
Front, in front (locally), bifo. 
JVtti'< (Lat. frux), fluk. 
Fruit (Lat. promum), pom. 
Further, in future, f alo. 

Garden, gad. 
Gardener, gadel. 
Garden tools, gadem. 
Garment, klot. 
Gate, leyan. 
Generally, valiko. 
Gently, softly, lovik. 
Geography, taled. 
Geology, talav. 
German (adj.), Deutik. 
German (noun), Deutel. 
Germany, Deutan. 
Get (verb), geton. 
Gef p, rise, sustanon. 
Gift, present, legivot. 
Give (verb), givon. 


Gladden, giilon. 

Glass, tumbler, glut. 

Gloom, glum. 

Go, golon. 

Go dou-n, descend, set, dison. 

Go by, go past, beigolon. 

Goal, zeil. 

God, god. 

Gold, gollid. 

Good (adj.), benik, gudik. 

Good man, gudikel. 

Goodness, gud. 

Goods, wares, can. 

Gracious, benik. 

Gram, glam. 

Grandfather, fatel. 

GrandduJce, ledttk. 

Grasp (verb), dasumon. 

Grateful, danik. 

Great, large, big, gletik. 

Greece, Giik. 

Greek (noun), Glikel. 

Green, gliln. 

Greens, vegetables, glilned. 

Groiol, dibatonon. 

Guest, lot. 

Gun, gun. 

Gunpowder, gtlnapur. 


Habitually, kosemo. 
Hair, hel.. 

Half, (noun, Fr. moitie), laf. 
Half-year, lafayel. 
Hand, nam. 

Haply, by chance, fildiko. 
Happy, beatik. 
Hard, difficult, fikulik. 
Hardly, tobo. 
Hare, liev. 
Hasten, spidpn. 
Haven, port, pof. 
Hat, hat. 
Hatred, het. 
Have, labon. 
Head, kap. 
Health, saun. 
Healthy, saunik. 
Hear, lilon. 

Heart, lad. 

Heartily, cordially, ladlik. 

Heavy, vetik. 
Height, summit, geil. 
Helmet, lehat. 
Help, yuf. 
JETere, is. 

Hesitate, siienon. 
Hiding-place, loop-hole, shelter, 

Himself, herself, itself, okik. 

His, her, ofik, omik. 

Hit (the mark, verb), dlcfon. 

Hit, strike, flapon. 

Hitherto, jtinu. 

Hoary-headed, baledanik. 

Honour (noun), stim. 

Hope (noun), spcl. 

Horse, jeval 

Horseman, horse-soldier, 


Hostelry (see hotel). 
Hotel, lotop, lotug. 
Hour, diip. 
House, dom. 
House-gear, domem. 
How? Jiko? 
However, ga. 
ffou? mc/4 f limodik ? 
Humanity, mankind, monad. 
Hundred, turn. 
Hungary, Nugiin 
Hunt, chase, yag. 
Hunt (verb), j-agon. 
Huntsman, yagel. 
Hurt, dam. 
Husband, matel. 
ftf, ludom. 


Jce, glad. 

If, if? 

ill, bad. 

IM, s/c/f, maladik. 

Immediately, forthwith, anon f 

foviko, lenu. 
Important, veiitik. 

In, in. 

Increase, expansion, enlarge- 
ment, gletam. 

Indeed, certainly, dido. 

India, Nidan. 

Indicate, announce, malon. 

Induce, urge, stigon. 

Industrious, dutik. 

Industry, dut. 

Inhabit', dwell, lodon. 

Inhabitant, iiinlodel. 

Injury, dam. 

Injure, damon. 

Inn, hotel, hostelry, lotop, 

Inside, ino. [lotug. 

Insure, sefdn. 

Inspect, survey, sulogon. 

Instruction, lesson, act of teach- 
ing, tid. 

Intelligence, kapill, kapilliib. 

Intelligent, kapalik. 

Intention, desiin. 

Intentionally, desilno. 

Invent, datikon. 

Invention, datuv. 

Investigate, vestigon. 

Invigorate, naraon. 

Iron, lei. 

Italy, tal, tiilan. 


January, Balul. 
Journey, voyage, tiiv. 
Joy, gal. 

Judge (noun), codel. 
Judge (verb), codon. 
Jurisprudence, gitav. 
July, Vclul. 
June, Malul. 
Justice, cod. 


Kettle, caf. 
Kill, funon. 
Kilogram, miglam. 
Kilometre, milmet. 
King, reg. 

Kingdom, empire, kiiilin. 
Kitchen, kuk. 
Kitchen-knife, kukaneif. 

Knife, neif. 

Know (verb), nolon. 

Know (Fr. connaitre), sevon. 

Knowledge, nol. 


Lady, lad. 
Lake, lak. 
Land, country, Ian. 
Landscape, region, topof. 
Large, great, big. gletik. 
Last, endure, dnlon. 
Last (adj.), latik. 
Last evening, aveiidelo. 
Last year, ayelo. 
Late, lat. 

Latitude, width, vid. 
Laugh, smile (verb), smilon. 
Lead (verb), dugon. 
Learn, become aware o/,plakon. 
Leather, skit. 
Left, not right, nedet. 
Lend, lugivon. 
Length, loned. 
Leitgthen, lonedon. 
Lesson, act of teaching, in- 
struction, tid. 
Let, leton. 

Letter (Lat. epistola), pened. 
Liberate, set free, libon. 
Liberty, lib. 
Life, life. 
Lifetime, lifttp. 
Light, not heavy, leitik. 
Light up (verb), daliton. 
Lion, lein. 
Lip. lip. 

Listen to, lenlilon. 
Live (verb), lifon. [lodam. 
Load, freight, cargo, fled, 
Load (verb), lodon, suseiton. 
Logic, tikav. 

Loop-hole, hiding-place, shelter, 
Loud, clear, kleilik. [slupop. 
Love (verb), lofo'n. 
Loved, dear, lofik. 
Lover, lofan. 
Luck, fortune, lab. 
Lucky, fortunate, labile. 
Luckily, labo. 


Magnitude, glet. 
Majesty, mayed. 
Man (Lat. vir), man. 
Man (Lat. homo), men. 
Mankind, humanity, menad. 
Many, modiks. 
Many a one, teldik. 
March (the month), kilul. 
Marriage, mat, mated. 
Master, masel. 
Master, Mr., Sir, Sol. 
Material, stuff, stof. 
Mathematics, gletav. 
Matrimony, mat, mated. 
Mature, ripe, madik. 
Maturity, mad. 
May (the month), Lulul. 
Means, by means of, dub. 
Meat, flesh, mit. 
Medicine, medin. [nav. 

Medicine, the science of, medi- 
Meditate, consider, think, 


Melancholy, sadness, luladel. 
Merchandise, can. 
Merchant (wholesale), tedal. 
Merchant (retail), tedel. 
Merriment, delight, yof. 
Meter (39'37 in.), met. 
Midday, zeudel. 
Middle, in the midst, zenodii. 
Midnight, zeneit. 
Might, power, mekad. 
Mighty, powerful, mekadik. 
Mile, leil. 
Milk, milig. 
Million, balion. 
Mine (a), meinop. 
Mineral, min. 
Mineralogy, minav. 
Mingle, mix, migon. 
Minister, servant, dunal. 
Mislead, seduce, fedugon. 
Miss, young lady, vomtil. 
Mix, mingle, migon. 
Moderation, matof. 
Moisten, wet, luimon. 
Moment, timil. 
Momentarily, timilo. 


Monday, Teludel. 
Money, mon. 
Monkey, ape, lep. 
Monster, tuvemaf. 
Month, mul. 
Mood, ladalod. 
; Moon,^ mun. 
Morning, godel. 
Mother, mot. 
Mountain, bel. 
Mountain-range, belem. 
Move (verb), mofon. 
Much, modik, modo. 
Mule, mucuk. 
Music, musig. 
Musician, musigel. 
Must (verb), muton. 
Mutually, balvoto. 
My, obik. 

Name (noun), nem. 
Name (verb), nemon. 
Narrate, konon. 
Narrative, story, kon. 
Native of, metafile. 
Native town, motot'azif. 
Nature, nat. 
Natural science, natav. 
Near, nilik. 
Near by, neb, nilti. 
Necessary, zesiidik. 
Need, want (verb), nedon. - 
Needful, zestidik. 
Needle, nad. 

Neighbourhood, vicinity, nil. 
Neighbour, nilel. 
Neither... nor, 
Nephew, nef. 
Nest, smabed. 
Never, negelo, nevelo. 
Nevertheless, deno. 
Nev), nulik. 
Night, neifc. 
No, none, nonik. 
Nobody, nek. 9 

North, noliid. 

North America, Nolii Melop. 
North American (noun), Nolii 


Nose, nud. 

Not very, no. 

Not yet, no nog. 

Nothing, nos. 

Nourishment, food, nullid. 

November, Balsebalul. 

Now, nu. 

Number (noun), num. 

Number, count (verb), numon. 


Oats, zab. 

Occasionally, at time?, sotimo. 

October, Balsul. 

Of, de. 

Of, concerning, do. 

Officer, fiztr. 

Often, ofen. *v>%/ JL*V*. 

On, up, upon, su. 

0e (numeral), bal. 

Once upon a time, formerly, 


Open, free, libik. 
Opera, lop. 
Orient, East, Lefiid. 
Origin, ved. 
OMer, votik. 
OH, out of, se. 
Over, ovi. 
Overtake, surprise, supiton. 

OP U- 


Pain, dol. 

Pair (noun), tclid. 

Palace, ledom. 

Paper, pop. 

Pardon, forgive, fogivon. 

Parents, paels. 

Part (noun), dil. 

Partly, dilo. 

Pass away, perish, elapse, fe- 


Patient, sufferer, maliidikel. 
Patriotism, fatiinill. 
Pay (verb), pelon. 
Pay duty or toll, toladon. 
Peace, pud. 

Pear, bun. 

Peasant, feilel. 

Pedestrian, futel. 

Penalty, pon. 

Pencil, stib. 

Perceive, feel, senit on. 

Performance (on the stage), 

Perish, pass aivay, elapse, fe- 


Permit, alloio (verb), dalon. 
Philology, pttkav. 
Philosophy, filosop, sapav. 
Physician, surgeon, medinel, 

sari el. 

Physics, fusid. 
Pine-tree, pein. 
PZace (verb), pladon. 
Plan, desiln. 
Plant, plan. 

Play, piece (noun), pled. 
Play (verb), pledSn. 
Please (verb), plidoii. 
Pleasure, galod. 
Pluck (verb), plokon. 
Poem, poedat. 
Poet, poedel, poedal. 
Poetry, poesy, poed. 
Poor, pofik. 
Port, haven, pof. 
Portion, por. 
Poverty, pof. 
Possession, labed. 
Possible, mogik. 
Pound, , paun. 
Powder, pur. 
Power, might, mekad. 
Power, strength, emphasis,r\&m. 
Powerful, mighty, mekadik. 
Praise (noun), lob. 
Praise (verb), lobon. 
Prefer, bizugon. 
Preliminary, btio. 
Pretend, simulate, simulon. 
Prey, booty, lapin. 
Price, sum, suilra. 
Primarily, biio. 
Prince, plin. 
Procure, lukijafon. 
Professor, plofed. 


Promise, engage (verb), p6me- 


Property, u-ealth, labem. 
Prospect, view, lukilogam. 
Pidl down, destroy, distukon. 
Pupil, scholar, julel. 
Push (verb) dlanon. 
Push back, gedlauon. 
Pyramid, pir. 

Quarter part, foldil. 
Quick! le quick! spido! 
Quintuple, lulon. 


Railway, lelod. 
Rain (verb), lomibon. 
Read, liladon. 
Reciprocally, balvoto. 

Regard, consider,- konsidon. 
Region, landscape, topof. 
Reiterate, denuon. 
Remain, blibou. 
Remainder, lemiin. 
Rend, dimidon. 
Repeat, denuon. 
Reply (verb), gesagSn. 
Repose (noun), taked. 
Repose (verb), takedOn. 
Representation (on the stage), 

Request (noun), beg. 
Request (verb), begon. 
'Resistance, defence, tasteifam. 
Rest, tak. 
Restaurant, eating house, 


Rich, wealthy, liegik. 
Riches, lieg. 
Ride (verb), tnoniton. 
Rider (noun), monitel. 
Right (Lat.jus), git. 
Right hand, det. 
Right (not left) detik. 
Ripe, mature, madik. 
Ripeness, maturity, mad. 
Rise, get up, sustanon. 
River, flam. 

Road, street, silt. 

Road, way, vej. 

Roast meat, loet. 

Rob (verb), lapinon. 

Robber, lapinel, 

Roman (noun), Romel. 

Roam (a), cem. 

Run aiuay, escape, mogonon. 

Russia, Lusan. 

Russian (noun), Lnsilnel. 

Russian (adj.), Lusanik. 


Sack (noun), sak. 
Sacrifice (verb), kosefon. 
Sacrifice, devote, dedicate, 

(verb), kosekon. 
Sadness, melancholy, luladill. 
Sage, sapal. 
Same, the, ot. 
Save itp, put by, economise, 

spiilon. }<W-t . $&vi~n 
Saxony, Saxiin. 
Say (verb), sagon. 
Scholar, pupil, julel. 
Scholar, learned man, savant, 

School, jul. 
Schoolboole, julabuk. 
Scientific, nolik. 
Scotland, Jotlin. , 

Season, yelatim. 5*44 ' WC- 
Secondly, telido. 
Secure, safe, sefik. 
Secure, insure, make safe, 


Seduce, mislead, fedugon. 
See (verb), logon. 
Seek, stikon. 

Seem, shine, appear, jinon. 
Seize upon, dasumon. 
Seldom, seledik. 
Send away, desedon. 
September, Zttlnl. 
Servant, domestic servant, dti- 


Servant, minister, dlinal. 
Serve, dtinon. 
Set, descend, go down, disOn. 


Set, cause to sit, siadSn. 

Seven, vel. 

Shame, Jem. 

Shameless, nejemik. 

Shatter, shiver, diblekon. 

She. of. 

Shelter, loophole, hiding-place, 


Shine, seem, appear, jinon. 
Ship, naf . 

Shiver, shatter, diblekon. 
Shoe, jnk. 
Shoot, juton. 
Shore, coast, jol. 
Short, blefik. 
Shrub, smabim. 
Sick, ill, maladik. 
Silence, neptik. 
Silent, to be, keep secret (verb) 

(Lat. silere), seilon. 
Silent (adj.), stil. 
Silesia, Ilesan. 
Simulate, pretend, simulon. 
Sing, kaniton. 
Singer, minstrel, kanitel. 
Single, dabalik. 
Since, sis. 

Sir, master, Mr., Sol. 
Sin; mat. 

Skate (noun), gladajuk. 
Skate (verb), gladajukou. 
Sky, firmament, ail. 
Slap, blow (noun), flap. 
Sleep (verb), slipon. 
Sleep (noun), slip. 
Slip (noun), ship. 
Slip (verb), sliton, slupon. 
Slip out, seslupon. 
Sly, kafik. 
Small, stnalik. 
Smile, laugh (verb), smilon. 
Smoke (verb), smokon. 
Snake, snek. 
Snow (noun), nif. 
Snow (verb), nif on. 
So, so. 

Softly, gently, lovik. 
Soldier, solat. 
Solemn, festive, zelik. 
Some, auik. 

Some one, a certain one, sem- 


Somebody, ek. 
Son, son. 
Soon, suno. 
Soup, sup. 

Sound loud (noun), tonod. 
Sorrow, lug. 
South, suliid. 
Spain, Span. 
Sparing, economical, thrifty, 


Sparta, Spartan. 
Spartan (noun), Sparfcanel. 
Speak (verb), ptiko'n. 
Speak truthfully, velatoa. 
Specially, pato. 
Speech, ptik, ptikad. 
Speed (noun), spid. 
Spirit, tikal. 
Spite, in spite of, to. 
Sponge, spog. 
Spread (verb), pakon. 
Spring (noun), flolatim. 
Stag, stag. 
Stage, theatre, teat. 
Stand (noun), stan. 
Start from (verb), matavGn. 
Startled, pejekol. 
Starve, suffer want, dalebSn. 
Stay, reside, tarry (verb), ste- 
Steam, stem. [bou. 

Step, stride, wade, stepon. 
Step, tread (verb), tlidon. 
Step-father, lufat. 
Stone (noun), ston. 
Stop (verb), stopon. 
Storey, floor (of a house), stQk. 
Story, narrative, kon. 
Street, road, silt. 
Stuff, material, stof. 
Strength, power, nam. 
Stretch, extend, setenon. 
Strike, hit (verb), flapon. 
Stride, step, wade, stepon. 
Strong, vigorous, namik. 
Structure, edifice, stuk. 
Student, studel. 
Study (verb), studon. 
Such, som. 



Suffer (verb), snfon. 
Suffice, be enough, satan. 
Sugar, jueg. 
Suitable, appropriate, fit, dle- 


Sum, price, suara. 
Summer, hitatim. 
Summit, height, geil. 
Summon, challenge (verb), 
Sun, sol. [suflagon. 

Sunday, Baliidel. 
Surgeon, physician, medinel, 

Surprise, overtake, befall, stipi- 


Surround, encircle, ziimon. 
Survey, inspect ( verb), su logon. 
Swiss (noun), Iveizel. 
Switzerland, Iveiz, Iveizan. 


Table, tab. 

Take, sum on. 

Tarry, stay, reside, stebou. 

Task, exercise, sugiv. 

Taste (verb), guton. 

Tea, tied. 

Teach (verb), tidon. 

Teacher, tide!. 

Tear (noun), dlen. 

Tear, rend, dimidon. 

Ten times, balsna. 

Tenth (adj.), balsnalik. 

Terminate, flow into (said of a 

river), ninflumon. 
Termination, end, fin am. 
Terror, fright, tlep. 
Than, ka. 

Thank (verb), danoti. 
Thankful, danik. 
Thanks! danii ! 
That, das. 
Theatre, stage, teat. 
Then, tan. 

Theologian, godavel. 
Theology, godav. 
There, us. 
Therefore, sikod. 
Thereto, alos. 

T/ie/f, tif. 

r/jte/, tif. 

Thing, din. 

Tfctni (verb), tikon. 

Think, consider, meditate, me- 


Think of, estimate (verb),cedo'n. 
Third (noun), kilid. 
T/iirsi, nelum. 
This (person), at. 
This (thing), atos. 
This (time), atna. 
Thoroughly, from, the bottom, 


Thought (noun), tik. 
Thousand, mil. 
Three, kil. 
Thrifty, economical, sparing, 

Through, da. 

Through, by means of, dub. 
Throw, cast (verb), jedon. 
Thuringia, Tiiran. 
Thursday, Luliidel. 
Thunder (noun), tot. 
Thunder (verb), toton. 
Thy, olik. 
Ticfcei, biliet. 
Time, tim. 

Trade, commerce, ted. 
Trade (verb), tedon, 
Travel (verb), vegon, tavon 
Travel back, gevegoo. 
Traveller, tavel. 
Tread, step (verb), tlidou. 
Treble (verb), kilon. 
Tree, bim. 
Treetop, bimaklon. 
Trifle, smalof. 
Trick, stratagem, kilf. 
Tricky, sly, kafik. 
Triplet, kilel. 
Trwe, velatik. 
Truth, velat. 
To, too, tu. 
2'o, towards, al. 
To-day, adelo. 
Together, in common, common, 



Together, with, ko. 

Tobacco, tabak. 

To-morrow, odelo. 

Ton (1,000 kilogs.), toned. 

Tone (noun), ton. 

Top, klon. 

Town, city, zif. 

Tragedy, liigapled. 

Transoceanic, lovemelik. 

Trowsers, blit. 

True, truly, vo. 

Truly, in faith, in truth, fe. 

Trust, entrust (verb), confidon. 

Tuesday, Kiludel. 

Tumbler, glass, glat. 

Turn (verb), flekon, tulon. 

Twentieth (adj.), telsnalik. 

Twig, branch, tuig. 

Two, tel. 


Ugly, hetlik. 
Uncle, nok. 
Under, dis. 

Understand (verb), kapalon. 
Unfortunately, liedo. 
Unique, lebalik. 
University, niver. 
Universally, everywhere, val- 


Unless, nendas. 
Unluckily, nelabo. 
Up, upon, on, su. 
Upper, lopik. 
Upstairs, above, lopo. 
Urge, induce (verb), stigon. 
Use (verb), gebon. 
Use up, consume (verb), fege- 



Vacmtm, vag. 
Vainly, in vain, vanlik, van- 


Valley, nebel. 
Various, difik. 
Vegetables, greens, gliined. 
Verse, liiin. 
Very, vemo. 
Vex (verb), skanon. 
Vicinity, neiyhbourJiood, nil. 

Victory, vikod. 
View, prospect, lukilogam. 
Vigorous, strong, natnik. 
Village, pag. 
Visit (noun), visit. 
Visit (verb), visiton. 
Volcano, filabel. 
Voyage, journey, tav. 


Wade, stride, step (verb), 


Wagon, cart, carriage, vab. 
Waistcoat, blotaklot. 
Wait (verb), valadon. 
Waiting-room, valadop. 
Waiter, botel. 
Walk, take a walk (verb),- 


Walk (noun), spat. 
Walk, go on foot (verb), fute- 


Wall, vol 
War, klig. 
Wares, can. 
Warm, vamik. 
Warmth, vana. 
Water, vat. 
Way, road, veg. 
Wealth, property, labcm. 
Wealthy, rich, liegik. 
Weather, stom. 
Week, vig. 

Weep (verb), dlenon. 
Wednesday, Foliidel. 
Weighty, heavy, vetik. 
Weighty, important, veutik. 
Welcome, vekomo. 
Well (adv.), beno. 
Well then, also. 
West, vesud, 

Wet, moisten (verb), luimon. 
When? kiiip? 
When, ven. 

Where ? kiop ? kiplad ? 
Where (relat.), ko. 
Wherefore ? why ? kikod r 
Which (person), kel ) , . 
Which (thing), kelos ( relat ' 

Whilst, du. 

Whisper (verb), lovapiikon. 

WTiitlier? kipladi? 

Whole, lolik. 

Why ? wherefore ? kikod ? 

Width, latitude, vid. 

Will (verb), vilon. 

Willingly, viliko. 

Wine, vin. 

Winter, nifatim. 

TPtpe <Zr?/ (verb), neluimou. 

Wisdom, sap. 

JFts7i (verb), vipon. 

With, together with, ko. 

With, by means of, me. 

Without (Lat. sine), Tien. 

Without that, unless (Lat. 

wVi), nendas. 
Wolf, ludog. 
Woman, vom. 
TPomamsJi, luvomik. 
TFomemfo/, vomik. 
Wont to be (verb) (Lat. solere), 

kosomon. . 
Wood, boad. 
Wooden, boadik. 
Wool. lain. 
Word, vod. 

Work (norm), vob. 
TForfc (verb), vobon. 
Worker, workman, vobel. 
TFbrW, vol. 

World-speech, volapiik. 
Worship, devotion, devod. 
Wound (noun), vun. 
Wound (verb), vunCn. 
Write, penon. 


Year, yel. 

Yes, si. 

Yesterday, adelo. 

Young, yunik. 

Youth (Lat. j uventa), yun. 

Youth, young man, y uueL 

Youthful, yunlik. 


Zeal, zil. 
Zealous, zilik. 
Zoology, nimav. 

TiuLier & Tvmer, The Selwood Printing Works, Frame, and London 


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